Fifa World Cup Brazil 2014

Fifa World Cup Brazil 2014

Fifa World Cup Brazil 2014
The FIFA World Cup is one of the biggest sporting events on the planet. The four-year dispute between the best teams in the world mobilizes billions of people on all sides, from all cultures. Inflames passions and at the same time, reduce differences, since the peoples of the various countries, in 90 minutes a game, create a common bond to share the same emotions at the same time. It is a rare event, no similar, and therefore worthy of universal recognition.

In 2014, Brazil will host the tournament again. The twenty FIFA World Cup will take place 64 years after the edition in which the national team was crowned vice-champion in Maracanã. Since there was a definition of the host country, on October 20, 2007, initiated a comprehensive national effort. It is not simply to meet the requirements of the organization and do a good job in the eyes of the world. Since May 2009, when there was the ratification of the 12 host cities, work planning and execution of strategic triggered a development process that transcends any parameter sports.

In the Cup schedule, the first important date was July 30, when there was the draw for the qualifiers, under the eyes of the world. Since then, the project followed apace to meet the timelines and the certainty that, in June 2014, there will be an impeccable stage for the big event: Brazil, a country that will surely be even better, in every way.

Banjul, The Capital of Gambia

Banjul, The Capital of Gambia

Banjul is The Capital of Gambia and one of the best examples of urban Africa. The sand-blown streets play host to colorful markets and fading colonial buildings, and a sense of history permeates every district. The Gambian capital may be one Africa's smallest cities, but it has a big personality not soon forgotten by travelers.

The Royal Albert Market is the bustling heart of Banjul. Named after the husband of Queen victoria, the market is an extensive emporium that comes alive with pungent aromas, lively scenes and the hum of shoppers and sellers haggling over prices on everything from vivid, shimmering fabrics and shining silver jewelry to fresh produce and the latest electronics. Packed to the brim, the market's labyrinth of alleys are a great place to immerse yourself in Gambian culture. 

The National Museum offers a good introduction to the country's history. The wide range of exhibits covers everything from medieval trans-Saharan trade to, oddly, the dress beauty pageant queen Miss Gambia wore in 1984. The dusty display of photographs, maps and documents detailing Gambia's colonial history and struggle for independence is the most interesting display.

Banjul, The Capital of Gambia
Banjul, The Capital of Gambia
Banjul, The Capital of Gambia
Banjul, The Capital of Gambia
Banjul, The Capital of Gambia
Banjul, The Capital of Gambia
Banjul, The Capital of Gambia
Banjul, The Capital of Gambia
Banjul, The Capital of Gambia

The Aztec Empire: History and Culture

The Aztec Empire: History and Culture

The Aztec Empire: History and Culture
The center of the Aztec civilization was the Valley of Mexico, a huge, oval basin about 7,500 feet above sea level. The Aztecs were formed after the Toltec civilization occurred when hundreds of civilians came towards Lake Texcoco. In the swamplands there was only one piece of land to farm on and it was totally surrounded by more marshes. The Aztec families somehow converted these disadvantages to a mighty empire known as the Aztec Empire. People say the empire was partially formed by a deeply believed legend. As the legend went, it said that Aztec people would create an empire in a swampy place where they would see an eagle eating a snake, while perched on a cactus, which was growing out of a rock in the swamplands. This is what priests claimed they saw when entering the new land. By the year 1325 their capital city was finished. They called it Tenochtitlan. In the capital city, aqueducts were constructed, bridges were built, and chinapas were made. Chinapas were little islands formed by piled up mud. On these chinapas Aztecs grew their food. The Aztec Empire included many cities and towns, especially in the Valley of Mexico. The early settlers built log rafts, then covered them with mud and planted seeds to create roots and develop more solid land for building homes in this marshy land. Canals were also cut out through the marsh so that a typical Aztec home had its back to a canal with a canoe tied at the door. In the early 1400s, Tenochtitlan joined with Texcoco and Tlacopan, two other major cities in the Valley of Mexico. Tenochtitlan became the most powerful member of the alliance. Montezuma I ruled from 1440 to 1469 and conquered large areas to the east and to the south. Montezuma’s successors expanded the empire until it extended between what is now Guatemala and the Mexican State of San Luis Potosi. Montezuma II became emperor in 1502 when the Aztec Empire was at the height of its power. In 1519, the Spanish explorer Hernando Cortes landed on the East Coast of Mexico and marched inland to Tenochtitlan. The Spaniards were joined by many of the Indians who were conquered and forced to pay high taxes to the emperor. Montezuma did not oppose Cortes because he thought that he was the God Quetzalcoatl. An Aztec legend said that Quetzalcoatl was driven away by another rival god and had sailed across the sea and would return some day. His return was predicted to come in the year Ce Acatl on the Aztec Calendar. This corresponded to the year 1519. Due to this prediction, Montezuma II thought Quetzalcoatl had returned when Cortes and his troops invaded. He did not resist and was taken prisoner by Cortes and his troops. In 1520, the Aztecs rebelled and drove the Spaniards from Tenochtitlan, but Montezuma II was killed in the battle. Cortes reorganized his troops and resurged into the city. Montezuma’s successor, Cuauhtemoc, surrendered in August of 1520. The Spaniards, being strong Christians, felt it was their duty to wipe out the temples and all other traces of the Aztec religion. They destroyed Tenochtitlan and built Mexico City on the ruins. However, archaeologists have excavated a few sites and have uncovered many remnants of this society.


The Aztec Empire: History and CultureThe Aztec spoke a language called Nahuatl (pronounced NAH waht l). It belongs to a large group of Indian languages, which also include the languages spoken by the Comanche, Pima, Shoshone and other tribes of western North America. The Aztec used pictographs to communicate through writing. Some of the pictures symbolized ideas and others represented the sounds of the syllables. Food: The principal food of the Aztec was a thin cornmeal pancake called a tlaxcalli. (In Spanish, it is called a tortilla.) They used the tlaxcallis to scoop up foods while they ate or they wrapped the foods in the tlaxcalli to form what is now known as a taco. They hunted for most of the meat in their diet and the chief game animals were deer, rabbits, ducks and geese. The only animals they raised for meat were turkeys, rabbits, and dogs. Arts and Crafts: The Aztec sculptures, which adorned their temples and other buildings, were among the most elaborate in all of the Americas. Their purpose was to please the gods and they attempted to do that in everything they did. Many of the sculptures reflected their perception of their gods and how they interacted in their lives. The most famous surviving Aztec sculpture is the large circular Calendar Stone, which represents the Aztec universe. Religion: Religion was extremely important in Aztec life. They worshipped hundreds of gods and goddesses, each of whom ruled one or more human activities or aspects of nature. The people had many agricultural gods because their culture was based heavily on farming. The Aztecs made many sacrifices to their gods. When victims reached the altar they were stretched across a sacrificial stone. A priest with an obsidian knife cut open the victim’s chest and tore out his heart. The heart was placed in a bowl called a chacmool. This heart was used as an offer to the gods. If they were in dire need, a warrior would be sacrificed, but for any other sacrifice a normal person would be deemed sufficient. It was a great honor to be chosen for a sacrifice to the gods. The Aztec held many religious ceremonies to ensure good crops by winning the favor of the gods and then to thank them for the harvest. Every 52 years, the Aztec held a great celebration called the Binding up of the Years. Prior to the celebration, the people would let their hearth fires go out and then re-light them from the new fire of the celebration and feast.

A partial list of the Aztec gods
CENTEOTL, The corn god.
COATLICUE, She of the Serpent Skirt.
EHECATL, The god of wind.
HUEHUETEOTL, The fire god.
HUITZILOPOCHTLI, The war/sun god and special guardian of Tenochtitlan. MICTLANTECUHTLE, The god of the dead.
OMETECUHLTI and his wife OMECIHUATL, They created all life in the world. QUETZALCOATL, The god of civilization and learning.
TEZCATLIPOCA, The god of Night and Sorcery.
TLALOC, The rain god.
TONATIUH, The sun god.
TONANTZIN, The honored grandmother.
XILONEN, “Young maize ear,” Maize represents a chief staple of the Aztecs.
XIPE TOTEC, The god of springtime and re-growth.

Aztec Dances

The Aztec Dance is known for its special way of expressing reverence and prayer to the supernatural gods of the sun, earth, sky, and water. Originally, the resources accessible to the native Indians were limited, yet they were able to create lively music with the howling of the sea conch, and with rhythms produced by drums and by dried seeds which were usually tied to the feet of the dancers.


Lake Tekapo and Mount Aspiring in New Zealand


Lake Tekapo

Mount Aspiring

Mount Aspiring 


Matanitu Tugalala o Viti (na vosa vaka-Hindi रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी, Ripablik ăph Phījī) Na Miniseteri na Local Government and Urban Development e taqomaka ka vakaraica na kena gagadre, veivakatorocake taki na vei taoni kei na koro turaga. 

E na Gauna Makawa Ko Viti e 'a vakatawani tu ena yabaki 3500–1000 BC, ko ira na kai vakatakilai oqo baleta na kena mai kunei na kuro, i sasauni kei na veika tale eso mai vei ira na kai Lapita.


The table below lists the largest 50 cities in the United States based on population and rank for the years 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012.

census population
Size rank
Size rank
Size rank
Size rank
New York, N.Y. 8,336,697 8,175,133 8,143,197 8,008,278 7,322,564 685,714 9.4 1 1 1 1
Los Angeles, Calif. 3,857,799 3,792,621 3,844,829 3,694,820 3,485,398 209,422 6.0 2 2 2 2
Chicago, Ill. 2,714,856 2,695,598 2,842,518 2,896,016 2,783,726 112,290 4.0 3 3 3 3
Houston, Tex. 2,160,821 2,100,263 2,016,582 1,953,631 1,630,553 323,078 19.8 4 4 4 4
Philadelphia, Pa. 1,547,607 1,526,006 1,463,281 1,517,550 1,585,577 –68,027 –4.3 5 5 5 5
Phoenix, Ariz. 1,488,750 1,445,632 1,461,575 1,321,045 983,403 337,642 34.3 10 6 6 6
San Antonio, Tex. 1,382,951 1,327,407 1,256,509 1,144,646 935,933 208,713 22.3 9 9 7 7
San Diego, Calif. 1,338,348 1,307,402 1,255,540 1,223,400 1,110,549 112,851 10.2 6 7 8 8
Dallas, Tex. 1,241,162 1,197,816 1,213,825 1,188,580 1,006,877 181,703 18.0 8 8 9 9
San Jose, Calif. 982,765 945,942 912,332 894,943 782,248 112,695 14.4 11 11 10 10
Austin, Tex. 842,592 790,390 690,252 656,562 465,622 190,940 41.0 25 16 14 11
Jacksonville, Fla. 836,507 821,784 782,623 735,617 635,230 100,387 15.8 15 14 11 12
Indianapolis, Ind. 834,852 820,445 784,118 781,870 741,952 49,974 6.7 13 12 12 13
San Francisco, Calif. 825,863 805,235 739,426 776,733 723,959 52,774 7.3 14 13 13 14
Columbus, Ohio 809,798 787,033 730,657 711,470 632,910 78,560 12.4 16 15 15 15
Fort Worth, Tex. 777,992 741,206 624,067 534,694 447,619 87,075 19.5 29 27 16 16
Charlotte, N.C. 775,202 731,424 610,949 540,828 395,934 144,894 36.6 33 26 17 17
Detroit, Mich. 701,475 713,777 886,671 951,270 1,027,974 –76,704 –7.5 7 10 18 18
El Paso, Tex. 672,538 649,121 598,590 563,662 515,342 48,320 9.4 22 23 19 19
Memphis, Tenn. 655,155 646,889 672,277 650,100 610,337 39,763 6.5 18 18 20 20
Boston, Mass. 636,479 617,594 559,034 589,141 574,283 14,858 2.6 20 20 22 21
Seattle, Wash. 634,535 608,660 573,911 563,374 516,259 47,115 9.1 21 24 23 22
Denver, Colo. 634,265 600,158 557,917 554,636 467,610 87,026 18.6 28 25 26 23
Washington, DC 632,323 601,723 550,521 572,059 606,900 –34,841 –5.7 19 21 24 24
Nashville-Davidson, Tenn.1 624,496 601,222 549,110 545,524 510,784 59,107 11.6 26 22 25 25
Baltimore, Md. 621,342 620,961 635,815 651,154 736,014 –84,860 –11.5 12 17 21 26
Louisville-Jefferson County, Ky.2 605,110 597,337 556,429 256,231 269,063 12,832 –4.8 58 67 27 27
Portland, Ore. 603,106 583,776 533,427 529,121 437,319 91,802 21.0 27 28 29 28
Oklahoma City, Okla. 599,199 579,999 531,324 506,132 444,719 61,413 13.8 30 29 31 29
Milwaukee, Wis. 598,916 594,833 578,887 596,974 628,088 –31,114 –5.0 17 19 28 30
Las Vegas, Nev. 596,424 583,756 545,147 478,434 258,295 220,139 85.2 63 32 30 31
Albuquerque, N.M. 555,417 545,852 494,236 448,607 384,736 63,871 16.6 40 35 32 32
Tucson, Ariz. 524,295 520,116 515,526 486,699 405,390 81,309 20.1 34 32 33 33
Fresno, Calif. 505,882 494,665 461,116 427,652 354,202 73,450 20.7 48 37 34 34
Sacramento, Calif. 475,516 466,488 456,441 407,018 369,365 37,653 10.2 37 40 35 35
Long Beach, Calif. 467,892 462,257 474,014 461,522 429,433 32,089 7.5 32 34 36 36
Kansas City, Mo. 464,310 459,787 444,965 441,545 435,146 6,399 1.5 31 36 37 37
Mesa, Ariz. 452,084 439,041 442,780 396,375 288,091 108,284 37.6 53 42 38 38
Virginia Beach, Va. 447,021 437,994 438,415 425,257 393,069 32,188 8.2 39 38 39 39
Atlanta, Ga. 443,775 420,003 470,688 416,474 394,017 22,457 5.7 38 39 40 40
Colorado Springs, Colo. 431,834 416,427 369,815 360,890 281,140 79,750 28.4 54 48 41 41
Raleigh, N.C. 423,179 403,892 43 42
Omaha, Nebr. 421,570 408,958 414,521 390,007 335,795 54,212 16.1 47 44 42 43
Miami, Fla. 413,892 399,457 386,417 362,470 358,548 3,922 1.1 46 47 44 44
Oakland, Calif. 400,740 390,724 395,274 399,484 372,242 27,242 7.3 35 41 47 45
Tulsa, Okla. 393,987 391,906 382,457 393,049 367,302 25,747 7.0 44 43 46 46
Minneapolis, Minn. 392,880 382,578 372,811 382,618 368,383 14,235 3.9 43 45 48 47
Cleveland, Ohio 390,928 396,815 452,208 478,403 505,616 –27,213 –5.4 23 33 45 48
Wichita, Kans. 385,577 382,368 353,823 344,284 50 49 49
Arlington, Tex. 375,600 365,438 362,805 332,969 261,721 71,248 27.2 62 54 50 50
1. Nashville-Davidson city is consolidated with Davidson County.
2. Louisville and Jefferson County merged in Jan. 2003. Figures prior to 2003 are for Louisville city only.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Web: . For 1900–2005 population estimates, see Population of the 20 Largest U.S. Cities, 1900–2010.

PACIFIC BLUE TANG (Paracanthurus hepatus)

Pacific Blue Tang (Paracanthurus hepatus)

Tropical blue fish also known as Palette Surgeonfish, Hippo Tang, Hepatus Tang, Blue Surgeonfish, and Regal Tang. Photographed at Monterey Bay Auarium.

Pacific Blue Tang (Paracanthurus hepatus)


The animals lived 520 million years ago during the Early Cambrian, a period known as the 'Cambrian Explosion' in which all the major animal groups and complex ecosystems suddenly appeared. Tamisiocaris belongs to a group of animals called anomalocarids, a type of early arthropod that included the largest and some of the most iconic animals of the Cambrian period. They swam using flaps down either side of the body and had large appendages in front of their mouths that they most likely used to capture larger prey, such as trilobites.

However, the newly discovered fossils show that those predators also evolved into suspension feeders, their grasping appendages morphing into a filtering apparatus that could be swept like a net through the water, trapping small crustaceans and other organisms as small as half a millimetre in size.

The evolutionary trend that led from large, apex predators to gentle, suspension-feeding giants during the highly productive Cambrian period is one that has also taken place several other times throughout Earth's history, according to lead author Dr Jakob Vinther, a lecturer in macroevolution at the University of Bristol.

Dr Vinther said: "These primitive arthropods were, ecologically speaking, the sharks and whales of the Cambrian era. In both sharks and whales, some species evolved into suspension feeders and became gigantic, slow-moving animals that in turn fed on the smallest animals in the water."

In order to fully understand how the Tamisiocaris might have fed, the researchers created a 3D computer animation of the feeding appendage to explore the range of movements it could have made.

"Tamisiocaris would have been a sweep net feeder, collecting particles in the fine mesh formed when it curled its appendage up against its mouth," said Dr Martin Stein of the University of Copenhagen, who created the computer animation. "This is a rare instance when you can actually say something concrete about the feeding ecology of these types of ancient creatures with some confidence."

The discovery also helps highlight just how productive the Cambrian period was, showing how vastly different species of anomalocaridids evolved at that time, and provides further insight into the ecosystems that existed hundreds of millions of years ago.

"The fact that large, free-swimming suspension feeders roamed the oceans tells us a lot about the ecosystem," Dr Vinther said. "Feeding on the smallest particles by filtering them out of the water while actively swimming around requires a lot of energy -- and therefore lots of food."

Tamisiocaris is one of many recent discoveries of remarkably diverse anomalocarids found in rocks aged 520 to 480 million years old. "We once thought that anomalocarids were a weird, failed experiment," said co-author Dr Nicholas Longrich at the University of Bath. "Now we're finding that they pulled off a major evolutionary explosion, doing everything from acting as top predators to feeding on tiny plankton."

The Tamisiocaris fossils were discovered during a series of recent expeditions led by co-author David Harper, a professor at Durham University. "The expeditions have unearthed a real treasure trove of new fossils in one of the remotest parts of the planet, and there are many new fossil animals still waiting to be described," he said. "Our new understanding of this remarkable animal adds another piece to a fascinating jigsaw puzzle."

The expeditions were funded by the Agouron Institute, Carlsberg Foundation and Geocenter Denmark.


Subir Sachdev, William Witczak-Krempa, and Erik Sørensen are condensed matter physicists. They study exotic but tangible systems, such as superfluids. And their latest paper about one such system has a black hole in it.

How did a black hole get into a condensed matter paper? "Well, it's a long story," says Sachdev, who is a professor at Harvard and a Distinguished Visiting Research Chair at Perimeter Institute.

It's a long story, he might add, that in a way starts with him: he was one of the first condensed matter physicists to venture into the strange land of string theory, where the black holes live. But that is getting ahead of the tale.

"Let's start here," Sachdev says. "Condensed matter physicists study the behaviour of electrons in many materials -- semiconductors, metals, and exotic materials like superconductors."

Normally, these physicists can model the behaviour of a material as if electrons were moving freely around inside it. Even if that's not what's actually happening, because of complex interactions, it makes the model easy to understand and the calculations easier to do. Electrons (and occasionally other particles) used in this kind of short-hand model are called quasi-particles.

However, there are a handful of systems that cannot be described by considering electrons (or any other kind of quasi-particle) moving around.

"What we try to do is understand a quantum system where you have electricity without electrons," says Sachdev. "Of course, the system does have electrons in it, but the behaviour of the system doesn't look like electrons moving at all. What you see is not even particles, but some lumps of quantum excitations that are doing strange quantum things."

"Without quasi-particles, it's a mess," says William Witczak-Krempa. Witczak-Krempa, a Perimeter postdoctoral fellow, is also a condensed matter theorist who collaborated with Sachdev on the paper. "It's this quantum fuzzball of stuff."

Describing such a fuzzball system is a challenge -- but it's crucial to understanding many modern materials, including superfluids and high-temperature superconductors. The broad problem of how to model systems without quasi-particles has been stumping condensed matter theorists for decades.

"What we decided to do was look at a simple case of such an electricity-without-electrons system," says Witczak-Krempa. "That turns out to be a quantum phase transition between a superfluid and an insulator."

A fair amount of work had been done on such systems, such that the team was able to make progress modelling the system using the traditional mathematical tools of condensed matter. Sachdev and Witczak-Krempa worked with Erik Sørensen of McMaster University on this aspect of their paper. Sørensen used a computer simulation -- specifically, a quantum Monte Carlo simulation -- to predict how conductivity should change with temperature and frequency as a superfluid turns into an insulator.

"This frequency dependence tells us how the quantum fluid behaves in time. This dynamic behaviour is notoriously hard to study using standard methods, including quantum Monte Carlo simulations," says Witczak-Krempa. "Erik's work was a huge computational achievement. It took months of processing time. And, in the end, the results still needed to be converted into a form that can be compared with experiments. This is where we tried something new."

To perform this conversion, Sachdev and Witczak-Krempa tackled the same system from a different angle: string theory. (Here, they build on Sachdev's previous work with Perimeter Faculty member Robert Myers and one of his graduate students, Ajay Singh.) One of the pillars of string theory is that certain quantum field theories (technically known as conformal field theories) can be translated into a theory of gravity with one extra dimension.

Sachdev explains where the extra dimension comes in. Wiggling his fingers above the tabletop, he conjures strings moving through the air.

"In certain configurations, the strings all end on a kind of membrane," he says, tapping his fingertips on the table's surface. "You might ask yourself: if you were living on the membrane [the table surface] -- and you didn't know about the extra dimensions where the strings were, what would you see?"

He answers himself: "Only the ends of the strings. They would look like particles. What's amazing is that string theorists found that the theories that you'd use to define the ends of the strings on the membrane are remarkably like the theory we want to use to describe our system."

The quantum field theory describing Sachdev and Witczak-Krempa's "fuzzball" system shares many fundamental properties with the conformal field theories associated with string theory -- so many that the researchers were able to map the two-dimensional field theory into a three-dimensional theory of gravity.

"We ended up studying the physics of this alternate reality," says Witczak-Krempa. "Using this technique, we were able to translate a very hard problem into a fairly easy one." Albeit a fairly easy problem involving a black hole.

"We wanted to look at the physics of the boundary -- the physics at the table top," says Witczak-Krempa. "But we wanted to heat it up a bit -- give it a finite temperature. It turns out that the natural way of doing this is to invoke a black hole." Really?

"There are various ways of developing an intuition about that," he says. "For instance, you can remember that the black hole will release Hawking radiation. The Hawking radiation escapes and eventually hits the boundary where the system lives, and heats it up."

Witczak-Krempa admits it's unorthodox: "Most condensed matter people would go: 'Why is there a black hole in this paper?' It's crazy. But what's even crazier is that this mathematical machinery works quite well. It gives you answers that make a lot of sense. You can compare them directly with Erik's Monte Carlo results, and they check out."

It's the first time results from a traditional large-scale condensed matter simulation have been compared to results from the new string theory approach.

Sachdev is cautiously thrilled: "There are a couple of issues we don't fully understand and one discrepancy we wish we understood better, but in general it's worked extremely well. It's progress on something I've been thinking about for more than 20 years. And now we finally have a theory that is perhaps not complete, but is encouragingly successful."

What's more, string theory has finally produced a set of physical predictions that experimentalists can go check. Sachdev and Witczak-Krempa are hoping that an experimental team will try soon.

"Let's see what happens," says Sachdev. "We're pushing string theory to a new regime. Whatever happens, we will learn more."