LANGUAGES OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA

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LANGUAGES OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Papua New Guinea. 5,420,280. Papuan 78%, Melanesian 20%. National or official languages: Hiri Motu, Tok Pisin, English. 600 islands. Literacy rate: 32% to 43%. Also includes Chinese, people from the Philippines, India. Information mainly from J. C. Anceaux 1961; A. Healey 1964; K. Franklin 1968; G. Sankoff 1968; J. A. Z'Graggen 1969, 1971, 1975; K. McElhanon 1970, 1978; B. Hooley 1971; B. Hooley and K. McElhanon 1970; R. D. Shaw 1973, 1981; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981; M. Ross 1988; L. Carrington 1996; SIL 1971–2003. Blind population: 12,500. The number of languages listed for Papua New Guinea is 830. Of those, 820 are living languages and 10 are extinct.

Living languages

Abadi

[kbt] 2,121 (2003 SIL). Central Province, north of Galley Reach. Alternate names: Gabadi, Kabadi. Dialects: Lexical similarity 53% with Toura (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Gabadi
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Abaga

[abg] 5 (1994 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,200 (1975 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Abaga Nearly extinct.
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Abau

[aau] 7,267 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Green River District, Sepik and Green rivers. Not in Papua, Indonesia. Alternate names: Green River. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Abau
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Abom

[aob] 15 (2002 SIL). Western Province, a few older adult speakers in Tewara, Lewada, and Mutam villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity 14% with Bitur, 12% with Baramu, 11% with Makayam, 9% with Were, 4% with Idi and Agob. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio Nearly extinct.
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Abu

[ado] 3,221 (1990 census). East Sepik Province, Angoram District, 19 villages; Madang Province, Bogia District, 8 villages, western side of lower Ramu River. Alternate names: Adjora, Adjoria, Azao. Dialects: Abu, Auwa, Sabu. Auwa may be a different language. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Grass Proper
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Adzera

[azr] 20,675 (1988 Holzknecht). Population includes 367 Ngariawan (1978 McElhanon), 497 Sarasira (1988 Holzknecht), 990 Sukurum (1990). Morobe Province, Markham Valley, Kaiapit District, Leron River. Alternate names: Azera, Atzera, Acira. Dialects: Yarus, Amari, Azera, Ngarowapum, Tsumanggorun, Guruf-Ngariawang (Ngariawan), Sarasira (Sirasira), Sukurum. The dialects form a cluster. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Adzera
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Aekyom

[awi] 8,000 (1987 UBS). Western Province, Kiunga area. Alternate names: Awin, Aiwin, Akium, West Awin. Dialects: North Awin, South Awin, East Awin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awin-Pare
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Agarabi

[agd] 26,996 (2000 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Alternate names: Agarabe, Bare. Dialects: Close to Gadsup. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa
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Agi

[aif] 955 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei
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Agob

[kit] 2,436 (2000 census). Population includes 1,437 Agob, 542 Ende, 457 Kawam. Western Province, along the Pahoturi River and southern coast. Alternate names: Dabu. Dialects: Agob, Ende, Kawam. One end of a dialect chain stretching to Idi. Ende and Kawam are closest to Agob. Distinct from, but related to Idi (Tame) and Waia. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Pahoturi
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Aigon

[aix] 2,000 (2003 SIL). West New Britain Province, Gasmata and Mosa Rural LLGs, inland from Akolet and Avau, between Avio and Amgen rivers, extending to the northern side of the Whiteman Range. Alternate names: Bao, Apsokok, Psohoh. Dialects: Bao (Do), Apsokok (Psohoh, Sokhok, Psokhok, Psokok), Aigon. In the Kaulong (Pasismanua) dialect cluster. Lexical similarity 83% between Aigon and Bao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua
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Aiklep

[mwg] 3,697 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest coast and inland, Aviklo Island near Kandrian,Ais, Asailo, Yumielo, Analo villages. Alternate names: Moewehafen, Eklep, Agerlep, Kaul. Dialects: Dialect cluster with Gimi and Apalik. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe
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Aiku

[mzf] 1,132 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Maimai Namblo Division, Wemil village, and more in West Palei Division. Alternate names: Minendon, Menandon, Malek. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei
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Aimele

[ail] 138 (2000). Southwest corner of Southern Highlands Province around Mt. Bosavi; Western Province around Lake Campbell. Most have moved to Wawoi Falls area of Western Province. Alternate names: Kware. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi
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Ainbai

[aic] 100 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, south of Bewani station. 2 villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity 30% with Manem, 25% with Pagi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani
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Aiome

[aki] 751 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 70 miles west of Madang city, scattered houses. Alternate names: Ayom. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Annaberg, Aian
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Ak

[akq] 75 (2000 S. Wurm). Sandaun Province. Dialects: Closest to Namia and Awun. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Yellow River
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Akolet

[akt] 954 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, south coast and islands around Awio Bay. Dialects: Dialect cluster. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe
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Akoye

[miw] 800 (1998 SIL). Gulf Province, Kaberofe District, valleys between the Nabo Range and the Albert Mountains, Lohiki River. The largest group is living in a settlement in Kerema. Alternate names: Akoinkake, Lohiki, Obi, Mai-Hea-Ri, Maihiri, Angoya, Akoyi. Dialects: Close to Ivori. Similar to Tainae. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper
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Akrukay

[afi] 246 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan
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Alamblak

[amp] 1,527 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Angoram District. 9 villages (900 speakers) on Middle Karawari and Wagupmeri rivers. Another dialect has 4 villages (400 speakers) near Kuvanmas Lake. Dialects: Kuvenmas, Karawari. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak
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Alatil

[alx] 176 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Aru, Eru. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei
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Alekano

[gah] 25,000 (1999 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District, centered around the town of Goroka. Alternate names: Gahuku, Gafuku, Gahuku-Gama. Dialects: Close to Tokano, Dano, Yaweyuha, Siane, Benabena. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gahuku-Benabena
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Ama

[amm] 475 (1990 census). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Waniap Creek, south of the Sepik River, south of Namia. Villages: Ama (Wopolu I), Wopolu II (Nokonufa), Kauvia (Kawiya), Yonuwai; all on hills rising from the swamp. Alternate names: Sawiyanu. Dialects: Dialects have converged into one. Classification: Left May
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Amaimon

[ali] 1,781 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Amaimon
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Amal

[aad] 831 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, on Wagana River, near the confluence with Wanibe Creek. Alternate names: Alai. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Iwam
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Amanab

[amn] 4,419 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Not in Papua, Indonesia. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris
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Amara

[aie] 1,170 (2000 D. Tryon). West New Britain Province, northwest coast. Alternate names: Longa, Bibling. Dialects: Related to Mouk-Aria and Lamogai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Amara
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Ambakich

[aew] 770 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,964 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Alternate names: Aion, Porapora. Dialects: Northern Ambakich (Antanau), Southern Ambakich. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Grass Proper
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Ambulas

[abt] 44,000 (1991 SIL). Population includes 27,000 in Wosera (1991 SIL), 9,000 in Maprik (1991 SIL), 8,000 in Wingei (1991 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District. Alternate names: Abulas, Abelam. Dialects: Maprik, Wingei, Wosera-Kamu, Wosera-Mamu. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Amele

[aey] 5,300 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District, in the hills up from Astrolabe Bay, between the Gum and Gogol rivers. 40 hamlets. Alternate names: Amale. Dialects: Huar, Jagahala, Haija. Related to Gumalu, Sihan, Isebe, Bau, Panim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum
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Amto

[amt] 200 (2000 S. Wurm). Ethnic population: 200 to 300. Sandaun Province, Amanab District and Rocky Peak District, south of the Upper Sepik River, toward the headwaters of the Left May River on the Samaia River. Villages: Amto, Habiyon (Sernion). Alternate names: Ki, Siwai, Siawi, Siafli. Dialects: Amto, Siawi. Classification: Amto-Musan
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Anam

[pda] 1,069 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, villages around Josephstaal. Alternate names: Pondoma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Pomoikan
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Anamgura

[imi] 1,253 (1990 census). Madang Province, northwest of Josephstaal. Alternate names: Ikundun, Mindivi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Pomoikan
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Andarum

[aod] 1,084 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kanggape. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Ataitan
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Andra-Hus

[anx] 1,309 (2000). Manus Province, Andra and Hus islands. Alternate names: Ahus, Ha'us. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Anem

[anz] 550 (2003 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest coast and inland. Alternate names: Karaiai. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Anem
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Aneme Wake

[aby] 650 (1990 SIL). Oro Province, Afore District, both sides of Owen Stanley Range, Central Province; north from Ianu along Foasi and Domara creeks. Alternate names: Abie, Abia. Dialects: Mori, Buniabura, Auwaka, Jari, Doma. Lexical similarity 65% to 73% with Moikodi (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban
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Angaatiha

[agm] 2,100 (2003 BTA). Morobe Province, Menyamya District. Alternate names: Langimar, Angataha, Angaatiya, Angaataha. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan
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Angal

[age] 18,614 (WCD 2000). Southern Highlands Province, Mendi area, north into Mendi Valley, west into Lai Valley, east bank, west of Mt. Giluwe. Alternate names: East Angal, Mendi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa
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Angal Enen

[aoe] 22,000 (1995 UBS). Southern Highlands Province, 10 to 12 km south of Nipa, north of the Erave River, east of Lake Kutubu, west of Lai Valley. Alternate names: South Angal Heneng, South Mendi, Nembi. Dialects: Megi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa
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Angal Heneng

[akh] 40,000 (1994 V. Schlatter). Southern Highlands Province, south of Margarima and Kandep, north of Lake Kutubu, west of the Lai Valley. Alternate names: Augu, West Mendi, West Angal Heneng, Agarar, Wage, Katinja. Dialects: Waola (Wala), Augu, Nipa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa
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Angor

[agg] 1,266 (1990 census). Population includes 836 in Nai, 430 in Samanai. Sandaun Province, Amanab District. 11 villages. Alternate names: Watapor, Senagi, Anggor. Dialects: Nai (Central Angor), Samanai (Southern Angor). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Senagi
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Angoram

[aog] 8,215 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, along lower Sepik River, Angoram District. Alternate names: Pondo, Tjimundo, Olem. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Pondo
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Anjam

[boj] 2,019 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay District. Alternate names: Bogati, Bom, Bogajim, Bogadjim, Lalok. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim
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Ankave

[aak] 1,600 (1987 SIL). Gulf Province, Kerema District, in the valleys of the Mbwei and Swanson rivers. Alternate names: Angave. Dialects: Sawuve, Wiyagwa, Wunavai, Miyatnu, Ankai, Bu'u. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper
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Anor

[anj] 981 (2000). Madang Province. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Annaberg, Aian
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Anuki

[aui] 500 (2000 Wurm). North coast, Cape Vogel, Milne Bay Province. Alternate names: Gabobora. Dialects: Lexical similarity 49% to 57% with Gapapaiwa (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Anuki
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Ap Ma

[kbx] 7,000 (1990 UBS). Angoram District, East Sepik Province. Alternate names: Kambot, Ap Ma Botin, Botin. Dialects: Kambaramba. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Grass Proper
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Apali

[ena] 985 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, upper Ramu River area, Aiome District. Alternate names: Emerum, Apal. Dialects: Aki, Aci. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Emuan
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Apalik

[apo] 374 (1979 census). West New Britain Province, islands off the south coast between the Andru and Johanna rivers. Alternate names: Palik, Ambul. Dialects: In a dialect chain with Gimi and Aiklep. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe
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Arafundi

[arf] 733 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, on the Arafundi River. Alternate names: Alfendio. Dialects: Meakambut. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Arafundi
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Arammba

[stk] 967 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead Subprovince, southwest of Suki. Alternate names: Aramba, Serkisetavi, Upper Morehead, Serki. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda
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Arapesh, Bumbita

[aon] 4,335 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, Torricelli Mountains, south of Wom, 13 villages. Alternate names: Weri. Dialects: Bonahoi, Urita, Timingir, Weril, Werir. Weril and Werir are inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. Lexical similarity 21% with Southern Arapesh, 30% with Bukiyip. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh
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Arawum

[awm] 60 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Siroi, Pulabu, Kolom, Lemio. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau
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Are

[mwc] 1,231 (1973 SIL). Milne Bay Province, tip of Cape Vogel. Alternate names: Mukawa. Dialects: Close to Gapapaiwa. Lexical similarity 47% to 55% with Doga (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are
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Ari

[aac] 50 (2000 S. Wurm). Ari and Serea villages, Aramia River area, Western Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala
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Aribwaung

[ylu] 1,000 (1994). Morobe Province, lower Markham Valley, Yalu village. Alternate names: Aribwaungg, Yalu, Jaloc. Dialects: Close to Musom, Guwot, Sirak, Wampar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu
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Arifama-Miniafia

[aai] 3,469 (2000). Four locations along the coast of Cape Nelson and Collingwood Bay, Oro Province, Tufi District. 20 to 25 villages. Alternate names: Miniafia-Arifama. Dialects: Arifama, Miniafia. Lexical similarity 39% with Ubir. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are
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Arop-Lukep

[apr] 3,015 (2000 census). Three islands in the Siassi chain in the Vitiaz Strait. Arop dialect on Long Island, Madang Province, Saidor District. Lokep dialect on Tolokiwa Island and the north tip of Umboi Island, Morobe Province, Siassi District. Madang Province, Rai Coast District, east of Saidor. Alternate names: Siasi, Siassi, Tolokiwa, Moromiranga, Lukep, Arop-Lokep. Dialects: Arop (Poono), Lokep (Lukep, Lokewe). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap
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Arop-Sissano

[aps] 1,150 (1998). Sandaun Province, Aitape District, Arop village. Alternate names: Arop. Dialects: Related to Sissano, Malol, and Sera, but different enough to be a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau
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Aruamu

[msy] 8,000 (1990 UBS). Madang Province, west of Bogia. Alternate names: Mikarew, Ariawiai, Makarup, Makarub, Mikarup, Mikarew-Ariaw. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Misegian
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Aruek

[aur] 740 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, north of Kombio. Alternate names: Djang. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio
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Aruop

[lsr] 700 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, 6 villages. Alternate names: Lauisaranga, Lau'u. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei
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Asaro'o

[mtv] 1,245 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, southeast of Saidor. At least 4 villages. Alternate names: Morafa. Dialects: Related to Muratayak, Bulgebi, Degenan, Forak, Guya, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup
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Asas

[asd] 333 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Alternate names: Kow. Dialects: Related to Sinsauru, Sausi, Kesawai, Dumpu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia
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Askopan

[eiv] 1,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Mountains of south central Bougainville Province. Alternate names: Eivo. Dialects: Close to Kunua. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, West, Rotokas
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Atemble

[ate] 60 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Alternate names: Atemple-Apris, Atemple. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Atan
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Au

[avt] 8,000 (2000 census). 20% monolingual. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, 19 villages in the foothills of the Torricelli Mountains. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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'Auhelawa

[kud] 1,200 (1998 SIL). 30% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Normanby Island, Sehuleya District. Alternate names: Nuakata, Kurada, 'Urada. Dialects: Lexical similarity 52% with Duau (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic
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Auwe

[smf] 410 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, Simog and Watape villages. Alternate names: Simog. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris
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Avau

[avb] 621 (2002 SIL). West New Britain Province, south coast and islands around Gasmata. Alternate names: Awau. Dialects: Gasmata. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe
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Awa

[awb] 2,054 (2003 SIL). Okapa and Kainantu districts, Eastern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Mobuta. Dialects: Tauna, Ilakia, Northeast Awa, South Awa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa
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Awad Bing

[bcu] 1,150 (2000 SIL). Madang Province, 7 villages west of Saidor, Astrolabe Bay area. Alternate names: Biliau, Sengam, Samang, Semang, Bing, Awad Gey. Dialects: Biliau, Yamai, Suit, Galeg, Yori. Distinct from, but close to, Mindiri and Wab. Four dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe
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Awar

[aya] 1,094 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Awar, Nubia. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien
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Awara

[awx] 1,627 (1994 govt. figure). 35% monolingual. Morobe Province, Lae District, near the Wantoat. Dialects: There is some dialect variation within Awara. Wantoat, Wapu, and Awara are part of a language chain, with Awara being the western end. Lexical similarity 60% to 70% with Wantoat and Wapu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Wantoat
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Awiyaana

[auy] 11,110 (2000). Kainantu, Okapa districts, Eastern Highlands Province. 15 villages. Alternate names: Auyana. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa
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Awtuw

[kmn] 506 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Kamnum, Autu. Dialects: Related to Karawa, Pouye. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Ramu
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Awun

[aww] 400 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, east of Namia. Alternate names: Awon. Dialects: Related to Namia and Ak. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Yellow River
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Ayi

[ayq] 433 (2000 census). Southeast corner of Sandaun Province, Wan Wan Division, 3 villages. Dialects: Close to Pasi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama
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Bagupi

[bpi] 50 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related languages: Rapting, Wamas, Samosa, Murupi, Saruga, Nake, Mosimo, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Matepi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Bahinemo

[bjh] 550 (1998 NTM). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Hunstein Range, south of the Sepik River. 4 villages. Alternate names: Bahenemo, Gahom, Wogu, Yigai, Inaru. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo
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Baibai

[bbf] 345 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Classification: Kwomtari-Baibai, Baibai
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Baimak

[bmx] 653 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, 20 miles west of Madang city. Dialects: Related to Gal. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Baluan-Pam

[blq] 1,000 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Baluan and Pam islands. Dialects: Baluan, Pam. Two close dialects; Baluan is the larger one. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands
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Bamu

[bcf] 6,313 (2000 census). Population includes 964 Gama. Western Province from the mouth of the Bamu River to 50 miles upriver. Alternate names: Bamu Kiwai. Dialects: Gama, Lower Bamu, Sisiame, Upper Bamu (Middle Bamu), Nuhiro. Gama dialect may be a separate language. Closely related to Kiwai and less closely to Waboda. Lexical similarity below 80% between Gama dialect and Lower Bamu, the closest other Bamu dialect. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian
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Banaro

[byz] 2,484 (1991 SIL). Madang and East Sepik provinces. 2 villages. Alternate names: Banar, Banara. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Banaro
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Bannoni

[bcm] 1,000 (1977 Lincoln). Bougainville Province, southwestern Bougainville. Alternate names: Banoni, Tsunari. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni
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Barai

[bbb] 800 (2003 SIL). Inland Oro Province, Afore District, on the Managalas Plateau. Birarie dialect is in Umuate, Naokanane, Itokama, Madokoro villages. Dialects: Birarie, Muguani. Lexical similarity 50% with Managalsi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Baraic
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Baramu

[bmz] 853 (2000 census). Western Province, southern bank of lower Fly River; Baramura, Tirio (Madiri), Tirio 2, and Tapila villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity 33% with Bitur, 32% with Makayam, 27% with Were. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio
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Bargam

[mlp] 3,750 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District, North Coast Road just opposite Karkar Island. Alternate names: Mugil, Saker. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Mugil
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Bariai

[bch] 1,380 (1998 SIL). West New Britain Province, east of Cape Gloucester, northwest coast. Alternate names: "Kabana". Dialects: Lexical similarity 72% with Kove, 76% with Lusi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai
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Bariji

[bjc] 456 (2000). Oro Province, on the south bank of the Bariji River. Alternate names: Aga Bereho. Dialects: Lexical similarity 49% with Moikodi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban
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Barok

[bjk] 2,116 (1985). New Ireland, south central, east and west coasts. 15 villages. Alternate names: Komalu, Kanapit, Kulubi, Kolube, Kanalu. Dialects: Usen, Barok. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak
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Baruga

[bjz] 2,227 (2003 SIL). Population includes 796 Tafota, 987 Bareji, and 444 Mado. Oro Province, Tufi District, in the Musa and Bariji (Bareji) River flood plains. The Gaina, Bariji, and Yareba border them to the south. The Okeina dialect of Ewage-Notu, Ambe Tofo, Korafe-Mokorua, Miniafia-Arifama, Ubir, and Maisin speakers border them to the east. Dyke Ackland Bay is to the north. Dialects: Bareji, Baruga, Mado, Tafota Baruga. Lexical similarity 56% to 61% with Korafe and Gaina (Dutton 1971), 43% with Ewage dialect of Ewage-Notu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Baruya

[byr] 6,600 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Marawaka District. Alternate names: Barua, Yipma. Dialects: Wantakia, Baruya, Gulicha, Usirampia (Wuzuraabya). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper
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Bau

[bbd] 3,058 (2000). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Sihan, Gumalu, Isebe, Amele, Panim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum
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Bauwaki

[bwk] 398 (1980 census). Most are at Amau (Mori River), Central Province, extending into Oro Province. Alternate names: Bawaki. Dialects: Dutton says this is a bridge language between the Mailuan and Yareban families. Lexical similarity 66% with Abia (closest), 39% with Domu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan
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Beami

[beo] 4,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, east of Nomad, extending into Southern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Bedamini, Bedamuni, Mougulu. Dialects: Komofio, North Beami. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi
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Bebeli

[bek] 1,050 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, Stettin Bay, Cape Hoskins area. Alternate names: Benaule, Banaule, Kapore, Beli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe
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Beli

[bey] 2,202 (2000). Population includes 1,400 in area and 53 outside. Sandaun Province, west of Mehek. Alternate names: Mukili, Akuwagel, Makarim. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Beli
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Benabena

[bef] 45,000 (1998 NTM). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Alternate names: Bena. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gahuku-Benabena
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Bepour

[bie] 50 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Mauwake, Moere. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kumilan
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Berinomo

[bit] 353 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, April River. Bitara and Kagiru villages. Alternate names: Bitara. Dialects: Bitara, Kagiru (Apowasi). Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo
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Biangai

[big] 1,400 (1991 SIL). 50% monolingual. Morobe Province, Wau District, headwaters of the Bulolo River. 7 villages. Dialects: Ngowiye, Yongolei. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan, Kunimaipa
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Biem

[bmc] 1,455 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Viai, Blupblup, Kadovar, and Bam islands east of Wewak. Alternate names: Bam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam
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Bikaru

[bic] 100 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, headwaters of April River. Alternate names: Pikaru, Bugalu. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio
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Bilakura

[bql] 30 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related languages: Usan, Yaben, Yarawata, Parawen, Ukuriguma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan Nearly extinct.
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Bilbil

[brz] 1,246 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, coast just south of Madang town. Alternate names: Bilibil. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern
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Bilur

[bxf] 2,304 (2000). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula, 9 villages southeast of Cape Gazelle. Alternate names: Birar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic
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Bimin

[bhl] 2,250 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Bak-Bimin District, and Western Province. Dialects: Bim, Nimtep Weng. Close to Faiwol. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain
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Binahari

[bxz] 764 (1980 census). Central Province, both sides of a range of hills inland from Cloudy Bay. Dialects: Neme (Nemea), Ma. Lexical similarity 70% with Morawa (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan
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Binandere

[bhg] 6,902 (2003 SIL). Oro Province, along the Eia, Gira, Ope, Mambere, and Kumusi rivers, between Zia and Ambasi; a few in Morobe Province. Alternate names: Ioma Binandere. Dialects: Aeka (Aiga), Ambasi (Tain-Daware, Davari, Dawari), Binandere. Lexical similarity 50% to 54% with Suena and Zia, 67% with Ambasi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Bine

[bon] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Western Province, Daru District, south of Fly River. Alternate names: Oriomo, Pine. Dialects: Kunini, Boze-Giringarede, Sogal, Masingle, Tate, Irupi-Drageli, Sebe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Eastern Trans-Fly
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Binumarien

[bjr] 360 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Alternate names: Binumaria, Binamarir. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Tairora
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Bipi

[biq] 1,200 (1990 SIL). Manus Province, west coast, Maso, Matahei, and Salapai villages, Bipi and Sisi islands. Alternate names: Sisi-Bipi. Dialects: Close to Loniu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West
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Bisis

[bnw] 500 (1986 SIL). East Sepik Province, Hunstein Range, Ambunti District, next to the Bahinemo, between the Lower Salumei River and Chambri Lake. 3 villages. Alternate names: Yambiyambi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo
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Bisorio

[bir] 255 (2003 SIL). Population includes 50 to 100 Pikaru. East Sepik Province, headwaters of the Karawari, Wagupmeri, and Korosameri rivers; villages of Bisorio, Iniai, Gadio. Alternate names: Inyai-Gadio-Bisorio, Iniai. Dialects: Pikaru (Bikaru). Lexical similarity 70% with Nete. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga
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Bitur

[mcc] 856 (2000 census). Western Province, southern bank and hinterland of Fly River; Upiara, Bisuaka, Petom, Tewara and Kasimap villages. Alternate names: Mutum, Paswam, Dudi, Bituri. Dialects: Lexical similarity 52% with Makayam, 35% with Were, 33% with Baramu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio
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Biwat

[bwm] 3,042 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, lower and middle Yuat River. Alternate names: Mundugumor, Munduguma. Dialects: Related to Kyenele, Changriwa, Mekmek, Kyenele, Bun. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Langam, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat
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Biyom

[bpm] 379 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, southeast of Gende. Alternate names: Sasime. Dialects: Related to Isabi, Tauya, Faita. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Brahman
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Blafe

[bfh] 667 (2003 SIL). Western Province, west of Nambo language. Indorodoro town is center. Alternate names: Tonda, Indorodoro. Dialects: Mblafe, Ránmo. Different from Ara (Rouku), although related. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda
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Bo

[bpw] 85 (1998 NTM). Sandaun Province, the heart of the western range; Bo, Kobaru, Kaumifi, Nigyama Umarita villages. Western range, close to the border of Sandaun Province, near Right May River, East Sepik Province. Alternate names: Po, Sorimi. Dialects: Kaboru, Nikiyama, Umuruta. Classification: Left May
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Bogaya

[boq] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, some also in base of northern neck of Southern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Pogaya, Bogaia. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya
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Boikin

[bzf] 31,328 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Yangoru District. Alternate names: Boiken, Nucum, Yangoru, Yengoru. Dialects: West Boikin, Central Boikin, East Boikin, Munji, Haripmor, Kwusaun, Kunai, Island Boikin. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Bola

[bnp] 13,746 (2000 census). Population includes 2,253 Harua. West New Britain Province, northeast coast, most of Willaumez Peninsula. Harua is on the east side of Kimbe. Alternate names: Bakovi, Bola-Bakovi. Dialects: Harua (Karua, Xarua, Garua, Mai), Bola. Harua is a dialect that has developed as a result of a group of people being resettled on an oil palm plantation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez
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Bongu

[bpu] 854 (2000 census). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay, Rai Coast. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim
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Bonkiman

[bop] 175 (1991 SIL). 40% monolingual. Madang and Morobe provinces. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna
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Borei

[gai] 2,090 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Alternate names: Gamei, Gamai, Mborei, Mbore. Dialects: Boroi, Borewar, Botbot. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien
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Borong

[ksr] 2,069 (2000 census). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District, 5 villages and 5 hamlets in the central Huon Peninsula between the Kuat and Burum rivers, south of Mindik airstrip. Burum and Kuat are tributaries of the Mongi River. Many live in Lae and other towns. Alternate names: Naama, Kosorong. Dialects: Kosorong, Yangeborong. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern
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Boselewa

[bwf] 614 (1999 SIL). Milne Bay Province, north shore of Fergusson Island. Alternate names: Bosilewa, Bosalewa, Mwani'u. Dialects: Lexical similarity 61% with Galeya (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau
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Bosngun

[bqs] 1,225 (2000). 20% monolingual. Madang Province. Alternate names: Bosman. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien
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Bragat

[aof] 460 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, 4 villages. Alternate names: Alauagat, Yauan. Dialects: Most closely related to Aru. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei
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Brem

[buq] 1,190 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, including Bunabun village. Alternate names: Barem, Bunabun, Bunubun, Bububun. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Mabuan
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Breri

[brq] 1,100 (1986 PBT). Madang Province, lower Ramu Valley, 80 miles west of Madang City. Alternate names: Kuanga. Dialects: Related to Kominimung, Igana, Itutang. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan
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Buang, Mangga

[mmo] 3,000 (1986 SIL). Morobe Province, mid-upper Snake River area, Mumeng District. Alternate names: Manga Buang, Kaidemui. Dialects: Lagis, Kwasang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang
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Buang, Mapos

[bzh] 10,484 (2000). 30% monolingual. Morobe Province, middle Snake River area, Mumeng District. 10 villages. Alternate names: Mapos, Central Buang. Dialects: Wagau, Mambump, Buweyeu, Wins, Chimbuluk, Papakene, Mapos. Lexical similarity 61% between Mambump and Mangga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang
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Budibud

[btp] 309 (2000). 15% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Lachlan Islands, 50 miles east of Woodlark Island. Alternate names: Nada. Dialects: Most closely related to Muyuw. Lexical similarity 65% with Muyuw. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila
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Bugawac

[buk] 9,694 (1978 McElhanon). 40% monolingual. Morobe Province, coast of Huon Gulf. Alternate names: Bukawa, Bukaua, Bukawac, Kawa, Kawac, Yom Gawac. Dialects: Close to Yabem. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North
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Buhutu

[bxh] 1,350 (2003 SIL). 20% monolingual. Eastern tip of Papua, Sagarai Valley, Milne Bay Province, Alotau (Rabaraba) District. Alternate names: Bohutu, Buhulu, Yaleba, Siasiada. Dialects: Lexical similarity 68% with Suau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic
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Bukiyip

[ape] 16,233 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, west Yangoru District, Torricelli Mountains. Alternate names: Bukiyúp, Mountain Arapesh. Dialects: Coastal Arapesh, Bukiyip (Mountain Arapesh). Lexical similarity 60% with Mufian. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh
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Bulgebi

[bmp] 50 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province, 10 miles southeast of Saidor. Dialects: Related to Asaro'o, Muratayak, Degenan, Forak, Guya, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup
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Bulu

[bjl] 906 (2000 census). West New Britain Province, Willaumez Peninsula. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez
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Bun

[buv] 481 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Changriwa, Mekmek, Biwat, Kyenele. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Langam, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat
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Buna

[bvn] 750 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Angoram District. Dialects: Kasmin, Masan. Apparently 2 dialects: 1 in Kasmin, Boig, Waskurin, and Arapang villages, and 1 in Masan, Mangan, and Garien villages. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg
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Bunama

[bdd] 4,000 (1993 SIL). Milne Bay Province, southern Normanby Island, Esa'ala District. Dialects: Bunama, Barabara, Sawatupwa, Lomitawa, Sipupu, Weyoko, Meudana, Kerorogea, Kumalahu, Kasikasi, Sawabwala. Lexical similarity 66% with Mwatebu, 75% with most Dobu dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau
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Bungain

[but] 3,597 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Yaugiba is one village. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg
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Burui

[bry] 256 (2000). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sepik Plains south of Maprik, Burui village, north of Pagwi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Burum-Mindik

[bmu] 8,253 (2000 census). 1,000 monolingual. Population includes 5,500 in Somba, 4,500 in Siawari. Morobe Province, Finschhafen District, 30 villages in Central Huon Peninsula, south of Cromwell Range, Burum River valley and some western slopes of Kuat River. (Burum and Kuat are tributaries of the main Mongi River.) Many live in towns, 1,000 in Lae, scattered groups in Port Moresby and other towns. 3 airstrips: Ogeramnang, Mindik, Nomanene. Alternate names: Bulum, Burum, Mindik, Somba-Siawari. Dialects: Somba, Siawari. Lexical similarity 92% between the dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Bwaidoka

[bwd] 6,500 (2000 SIL). 50% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, southeast tip of Goodenough Island and west Fergusson Island, Bolubolu District. Alternate names: Bwaidoga. Dialects: Mataitai, Wagifa, Kilia, Lauwela, Bwaidoga, Faiyava, Belebele I, Bebebele Ii, Kalauna, Kiliva. Lexical similarity 72% with Iduna (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga
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Bwanabwana

[tte] 2,015 (1994 SIL). 30% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Bwanabwana District, Engineer Islands, Laseinie Islands, Ware Island, Kitai Island and southeast peninsula of Basilaki Island. Alternate names: Tubetube. Dialects: Wale (Wari, Ware), Kwalaiwa. Lexical similarity 52% with Duau (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic
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Chambri

[can] 1,700 (1991). East Sepik Province, marsh dwellers east and north of Sepik Hill area, southeastern shore and island in Chambri Lake. 4 villages. Alternate names: Tshamberi, Tchambuli. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Pondo
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Changriwa

[cga] 688 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related languages: Mekmek, Kyenele, Biwat, Bun. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Langam, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat
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Chenapian

[cjn] 178 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, on the Sepik River west of Wogamusin. 1 village. Alternate names: Tsenap, Zenap, Chenap. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Wogamusin
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Chuave

[cjv] 23,107 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Population includes 4,290 Sua (1962 Wurm). Simbu Province, Chuave District. Alternate names: Tjuave. Dialects: Elimbari, Kebai, Gomia, Chuave, Sua. Kebai is distinct, but intelligible. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu
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Dadibi

[mps] 10,000 (1988 SIL). 10% monolingual. Southern Simbu Province, Karimui District, eastern corner of Southern Highlands Province. 28 villages. Alternate names: Daribi, Karimui. Dialects: Erave. Those villages have minor dialect differences from standard Dadibi in the Karimui and Negabo areas. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Teberan-Pawaian, Teberan
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Daga

[dgz] 6,000 (1991 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, and Central Province, Abau District. Alternate names: Dimuga, Nawp. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan
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Dambi

[dac] 711 (2000). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Dialects: In the Mumeng language cluster. Some intelligibility of Kumalu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng
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Danaru

[dnr] 257 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Sop, Urigina, Sumau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka
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Dano

[aso] 30,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Alternate names: Upper Asaro, Asaro. Dialects: Upper Asaro, Lunube Mado, Bohena, Amaizuho, Kongi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gahuku-Benabena
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Daonda

[dnd] 169 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District near Imonda. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris
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Dawawa

[dww] 2,500 (1994 SIL). 20% monolingual. West and inland from Wedau in Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District. Alternate names: Dawana. Dialects: Lexical similarity 58% with Kakabai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Kakabai
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Dedua

[ded] 5,000 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Sialum District, headwaters of the Masaweng and Tewae rivers, south of Mt. Besenona. Dialects: Dzeigoc, Fanic. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern
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Degenan

[dge] 789 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Asaro'o, Muratayak, Bulgebi, Forak, Guya, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup
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Dera

[kbv] 687 in Papua New Guinea. Sandaun Province, Amanab District, both sides of the Faringi River. Alternate names: Dra, Mangguar, Komberatoro, Kamberataro, Kamberatoro. Dialects: North Kamberataro, South Kamberataro, Mengau, Lihen, Duka-Ekor. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Senagi
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Dia

[dia] 1,835 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Alu, Metru, Galu. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Dibiyaso

[dby] 1,953 (2000 Census). Western Province, villages of Makapa, Pikiwa, and Bamustu, via Balimo. Alternate names: Bainapi, Pikiwa, Dibiasu. Dialects: Lexical similarity 19% with Turumsa, 15% with Doso. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi
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Dima

[jma] 754 (2001 SIL). 15% monolinguals. Milne Bay Province, along the coast east of Moi Bay almost to Posaposa Harbor, and along the Ruaba River. Alternate names: Dimadima, Jimajima. Dialects: Lexical similarity 41% with Daga (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan
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Dimir

[dmc] 3,820 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Boskien, Bosiken. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Dimir
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Diodio

[ddi] 2,184 (2000). 20% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, west coast of Goodenough Island. Dialects: Iauiaula, Utalo, Awale, Central Diodio. Lexical similarity 66% with Bwaidoka (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga
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Dobu

[dob] 10,000 (1998 SIL). 60% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Esa'ala District, Sanaroa, Dobu, and parts of Fergusson and Normanby islands. 500 villages. Dialects: Galubwa, Sanaroa, Ubuia, Central Dobu, Loboda (Roboda, Dawada-Siausi). Lexical similarity 56% with Morima (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau
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Doga

[dgg] 200 (2000 Wurm). Milne Bay Province, north coast of Cape Vogel. Alternate names: Magabara. Dialects: Lexical similarity 7% to 55% with Are (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are
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Doghoro

[dgx] 267 (2000 census). Oro Province, Tufi District, in the Musa and Bariji (Bareji) River flood plains, Bendorode and Sebagha villages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Dom

[doa] 12,000 (1994 NTM). Simbu Province, mainly south of the Wahgi River from Kundiawa west of the Sinasina area. Dialects: Era. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu
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Domu

[dof] 947 (2000). Central Province, coast east of Cape Rodney and inland. Alternate names: Dom. Dialects: Lexical similarity 66% with Bauwaki (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan
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Domung

[dev] 2,000 (1991 SIL). Tapen, Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna
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Doromu

[kqc] 1,600 (2002 SIL). Central Province, south of Mt. Obree, west of Mt. Brown. Alternate names: Doram. Dialects: Kokila, Koriko, Koki (Doromu). Lexical similarity 63% with Maria (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Manubaran
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Doso

[dol] 700 (1973 D. Shaw). Western Province, Aramia River and Wawoi Falls areas, near the Kamula. Classification: Unclassified
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Duau

[dva] 3,550 (1991 SIL). 20% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Sawabwala, Normanby islands. Dialects: Mwalukwasia, Somwadina, Guleguleu (Guragureu), Dawada, Siausi. Dialects are diverse. No central or dominant dialect. Lexical similarity 75% with Bunama, 52% with Mwatebu, Auhelawa, and Tubetube. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau
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Duduela

[duk] 469 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kwato, Ogea, Uya, Rerau, Jilim, Yangulam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru
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Dumpu

[wtf] 510 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, two villages: Bebei and Dumpu. Alternate names: Watifa, Watiwa. Dialects: Related to Sinsauru, Asas, Sausi, Kesawai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia
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Dumun

[dui] 35 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Alternate names: Bai. Dialects: Related to Yabong, Ganglau, Saep. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon Nearly extinct.
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Duna

[duc] 11,000 (1991 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Lake Kopiago and Koroba districts, some in Western Highlands Province. Alternate names: Yuna. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya
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Duwet

[gve] 398 (1988 Holzknecht). Morobe Province, Busu River area. Alternate names: Guwet, Guwot, Waing. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu
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Edolo

[etr] 1,668 (2000 census). 60% monolingual. Southern Highlands Province, Tari District, and Western Province, Nomad District; southwest of Mt. Sisa, 16 villages. Alternate names: Etoro, Edolo Ado, Etolo. Dialects: Eastern Edolo, Western Edolo. Lexical similarity 38% with Beami. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi
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Eitiep

[eit] 501 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, southwest of Kombio, and partially in Sandaun Province, across Bongos River. Dialects: Close to Kombio. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio
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Elepi

[ele] 327 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, coast around Samap. Alternate names: Samap. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg
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Elkei

[elk] 1,642 (2000 census). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Olkoi. Dialects: At least 3 dialects. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Elu

[elu] 216 (1983 SIL). Manus Province, north coast of Manus Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Enga

[enq] 164,750 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Population includes 12,000 in Sau (1990 UBS). Enga Province. The Maramuni are nomadic, and are in the lower reaches of the central range. Alternate names: Caga, Tsaga, Tchaga. Dialects: Kandepe, Layapo, Tayato, Mae (Mai, Wabag), Maramuni (Malamuni), Kaina, Kapona, Sau (Sau Enga, Wapi), Yandapo, Lapalama 1, Lapalama 2, Laiagam, Sari. Mae is the standard dialect; all understand it. Layapo is between Mae and Kyaka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga
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English

[eng] 50,000 in Papua New Guinea (1987). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English
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Erave

[kjy] 10,000 (2000 census). Southern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Pole, South Kewa, Kewa South. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa
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Ere

[twp] 1,030 (1980 census). Manus Province, south coast, Drabitou, Lohe, Londru, Metawari, Pau, Piterait, Taui-Undrau, Hatwara, and Loi villages. Alternate names: Nane, E. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Ese

[mcq] 10,000 (2000 SIL). Oro Province, Popondetta District, southeast of the Omie. Alternate names: "Managulasi", "Managalasi". Dialects: Muaturaina, Chimona, Dea, Akabafa, Nami, Mesari, Averi, Afore, Minjori, Oko, Wakue, Numba, Jimuni, Karira. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Baraic
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Ewage-Notu

[nou] 12,900 (1988 SIL). Oro Province, Popondetta District, on the coast between Bakumbari and Pongani. Alternate names: Notu, Ewage. Dialects: Ewage-Notu, Yega (Gona, Okeina, Okena). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Faita

[faj] 50 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Biyom, Isabi, Tauya. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Brahman
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Faiwol

[fai] 4,500 (1987 SIL). Western Province, Tabubil District, at the headwaters of the Fly and Palmer rivers. Not in Papua, Indonesia. Alternate names: Faiwolmin, Fegolmin, Angkiyakmin, Wokeimin. Dialects: Angkiyakmin, Faiwolmin, Wopkeimin. Many dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain
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Fas

[fqs] 1,600 (1988 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab and Aitape districts. Alternate names: Bembi. Dialects: Eastern Fas, Western Fas. Dialect differences are small. Classification: Kwomtari-Baibai, Kwomtari
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Fasu

[faa] 1,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Population includes 750 Fasu, 300 Namuni, 150 Some. Southern Highlands Province, Nipa District, south into Gulf Province and west to the Kikori River in Western Province. Alternate names: Namome. Dialects: Some, Kaibu (Kaipu), Namome (Namumi, Namuni). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Kutubuan, West
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Fembe

[agl] 350 (1986 SIL). Western Province, Upper Strickland River. Alternate names: Sinale, Agala. Dialects: Closest to Kalamo and Konai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland
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Finongan

[fag] 1,300 (2002 SIL). 3% monolinguals. Morobe Province. Alternate names: Finungwa, Finungwan. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Fiwaga

[fiw] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Highlands Province, northeast of Tama. Alternate names: Fimaga, Fiwage. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Kutubuan, East
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Foi

[foi] 2,800 (1980 UBS). Southern Highlands Province, east and south of Lake Kutubu and Mubi River. Alternate names: Foe, Mubi River. Dialects: Ifigi, Kafa, Kutubu, Mubi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Kutubuan, East
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Folopa

[ppo] 3,000 (1985 SIL). Gulf Province, Baimuru District, Kerabi Valley; also in Southern Highlands Province. 20 villages. Alternate names: Podopa, Polopa, Podoba, Foraba. Dialects: Ro (Keai, Worugl), Bara (Harahui, Harahu), Sesa (Mamisa, Songu, Ibukairu), Kewah, Tebera, Aurei, Waraga, Pupitau, Boro, Suri, Siligi, Sopese, Keba-Wopasali. Closest to Dadibi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Teberan-Pawaian, Teberan
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Forak

[frq] 283 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, Mamgak village, 5 miles west and inland from Seure on the coast. Dialects: Related to Asaro'o, Muratayak, Bulgebi, Degenan, Guya, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup
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Fore

[for] 17,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Dialects: Pamusa (South Fore), North Central Fore. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Fore
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Fuyug

[fuy] 14,000 (2003 SIL). Central Province, Goilala District, Owen Stanley Range. Alternate names: Fuyuge, Fuyughe, Mafufu. Dialects: Central Udab, Northeast Fuyug, North-South Udab, West Fuyug. Lexical similarity 35% with Biangai, 33% with Kunimaipa, 29% with Weri, 27% with Tauade. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan
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Gabutamon

[gav] 329 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, 10 miles west southwest of Gali. Dialects: Related to Yupna, Ma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna
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Gadsup

[gaj] 22,061 (2000 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Dialects: Oyana (Oiyana), Gadsup. Related to Ontenu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa
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Gaikundi

[gbf] 1,196 (2000). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sepik Plains south of Maprik, east of Pagwi. Alternate names: Gaikunti. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Gaina

[gcn] 1,406 (1971 Dutton). Population includes 1,000 in Bareji, 130 in Gaina. Oro Province, next to the Baruga, the villages around Iwuji. Dialects: Bareji (Baredji), Gaina. Lexical similarity 61% with Dogoro (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Gal

[gap] 335 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, on the Gogol River. Alternate names: Baimak, Weim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Galeya

[gar] 3,414 (2000). 30% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, northeast coast, Fergusson Island. Alternate names: Garea. Dialects: Wadalei, Gameta, Urua, Basima, Sebutuia, Garea (Galeya). Lexical similarity 61% with Boselewa (closest). Galeya and Basima dialects have 80% lexical similarity. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau
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Ganglau

[ggl] 468 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related languages: Yabong, Dumun, Saep. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon
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Gants

[gao] 1,884 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Alternate names: Gaj. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kalam, Gants
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Gapapaiwa

[pwg] 2,383 (2003 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Makamaka District, south coast of Cape Vogel and inland along the Ruaba River. Alternate names: Manape, Gapa, Paiwa. Dialects: Lexical similarity 73% with Ghayavi (Boanaki, closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are
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Garus

[gyb] 2,652 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay. Alternate names: Ate, Em, Kurupi. Dialects: Related to Bagupi, Matepi, Mosimo, Murupi, Rapting, Samosa, Silopi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Gedaged

[gdd] 6,954 (2003 SIL). Madang Province; Sek, Yabob, Karkar, and Bagabag islands, Astrolabe Bay, and coastal villages around Madang. Alternate names: Bel, Graged, Star, Star-Ragetta, Tiara, Mitebog, Ragetta, Rio, Sek, Szeak-Bagili. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern
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Gende

[gaf] 8,000 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Bundi District near Bundi. Alternate names: Bundi, Gene, Gendeka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gende
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Ghayavi

[bmk] 2,807 (2000). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Weraura Local Government Area, north coast along Goodenough Bay from Uga in the west to Wadobuna in the east, including Rabaraba. Alternate names: Galavi, Boianaki, Boanaki, Boinaki, Boanai. Dialects: Lexical similarity 76% with Gapapaiwa (closest), 46% with Wedau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are
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Gimi

[gip] 3,697 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest coast and inland, Johanna River to Anu River. Alternate names: Loko. Dialects: Dialect continuum with Aiklep and Apalik. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe
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Gimi

[gim] 22,463 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Dialects: East Gimi, West Gimi (Gouno). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Fore
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Ginuman

[gnm] 1,442 (2000). Milne Bay Province, Mt. Simpson to coast at Naraka. Alternate names: Dime. Dialects: Lexical similarity 42% with Kanasi (Dombosaina village). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan
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Girawa

[bbr] 4,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Ramu District. Alternate names: Begasin, Begesin, Bagasin. Dialects: Related to Munit, Kein. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Kokon
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Gitua

[ggt] 759 (2000). Morobe Province, north coast of Huon Peninsula. Alternate names: Gitoa, Kelana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam
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Gizrra

[tof] 1,050 (2002 SIL). Western Province, South Fly Area, north-northeast of the Torres Strait island of Saibai, villages of Kulalae, Ngomtono, Barnap, Kupere, and Waidoro. Alternate names: Gizra. Dialects: Western Gizra, Waidoro. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Eastern Trans-Fly
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Gnau

[gnu] 1,325 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Namblo Census Division, northwest of Maimai. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Gobasi

[goi] 1,100 (1993 ECP). Western Province. Alternate names: Nomad. Dialects: Gobasi (Bibo), Honibo, Oibae (Oiba). Related to Samo and Kubo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland
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Gogodala

[ggw] 10,000 (1991 UBS). Western Province, north bank of Fly River, Aramia River. 301 villages. Alternate names: Gogodara. Dialects: Closest to Ari. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala
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Golin

[gvf] 51,105 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Simbu Province, Gumine District. Alternate names: Gollum, Gumine. Dialects: Yuri, Kia (Kiari), Golin, Keri, Marigl. Close to Dom. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu
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Gorakor

[goc] 2,741 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, including Yanta. Dialects: Yanta. In the Mumeng language chain. Some intelligibility of Patep. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng
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Gorovu

[grq] 15 (2000 Wurm). East Sepik Province, Bangapela village, Ramu River. Alternate names: Gorova, Yerani. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Grass Proper Nearly extinct.
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Guhu-Samane

[ghs] 12,761 (2000 census). Morobe Province, Lae District, and a few in Oro Province, from Kanoma and Sidema villages northward. Alternate names: Paiawa, Tahari, Muri, Bia, Mid-Waria. Dialects: Sekare. Lexical similarity 18% with Suena and Zia (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Guhu-Samane
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Gumalu

[gmu] 580 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Sihan, Amele, Isebe, Bau, Panim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum
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Gumawana

[gvs] 469 (2000 census). 50% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Esa'ala District, Amphlett Islands; a group of about 25 islands north of Fergusson. 7 villages. Alternate names: Gumasi, Domdom. Dialects: Lexical similarity 48% with Galeya, 47% with Dobu (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Gumawana
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Guntai

[gnt] 346 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District. Dialects: Kan. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda
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Guramalum

[grz] 3 or 4 (1987 SIL). New Ireland Province. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Nearly extinct.
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Guriaso

[grx] 162 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Classification: Kwomtari-Baibai, Kwomtari
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Gusan

[gsn] 794 (1980 census). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Guya

[gka] 131 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 10 to 15 miles west of Seure. Alternate names: Guiarak, Guyarak. Dialects: Related to Asaro'o, Muratayak, Bulgebi, Degenan, Forak, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup
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Gwahatike

[dah] 1,571 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, several villages south of Saidor. Alternate names: Gwatike, Dahating. Dialects: Gwahatike, Gwahamere, Gora, Gwapti. Related to Asaro'o, Muratayak, Bulgebi, Degenan, Forak, Guya, Yagomi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup
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Gweda

[grw] 26 (2001 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Maramatana Local Council Area, Garuwahi village. Alternate names: Garuwahi. Dialects: Closest to Haigwai. Lexical similarity 71% with Wa'ema, 69% with Taupota, 68% with Naura, 67% with Kapulika, 64% with Topura, 63% with Tawala, 53% with Wedau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Nearly extinct.
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Hahon

[hah] 1,300 (1977 Lincoln). Northwest Bougainville Province. Alternate names: Hanon. Dialects: Kurur, Ratsua, Aravia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz
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Haigwai

[hgw] 1,060 (2000 census). 15% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Huhu Local Government Area, inland from the head of Milne Bay between Hagita and Waigani estates and the mountains to the west. Alternate names: Naura, Kapulika, Garaghwaghi. Dialects: Naura, Kapulika. Naura and Gweda agree that Gweda is the closest to Haigwai. Naura has 68% lexical similarity with Gweda, Kapulika has 65% with Taupota, both dialects have 52% with Wedau, 48% with Maiwala. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota
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Hakö

[hao] 5,000 (1982 SIL). Bougainville Province, North Bougainville District, northeastern Buka Island. Alternate names: Haku. Dialects: Lontes. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia
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Halia

[hla] 20,000 (1994 SIL). Bougainville Province, North Bougainville District, northeastern Buka Island. Alternate names: Tasi. Dialects: Hanahan, Hangan, Touloun (Tulon, Tulun), Selau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia
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Hamtai

[hmt] 45,000 (1998 Tom Palmer). Gulf Province, Kukipi District, along the Tauri River inland east to the Ladedamu River; Morobe Province, Lae District, Kodama Range into Bulolo-Watut divide, across to Mt. Grosse and north to Mt. Taylor. Alternate names: Hamday, Kapau, Kamea, Watut, "Kukukuku". Dialects: Wenta, Howi, Pmasa'a, Hamtai, Kaintiba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper
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Hanga Hundi

[wos] 6,008 (1983 SIL). East Sepik Province, Pagwi District. 16 villages. Alternate names: Kwasengen, West Wosera. Dialects: Close to Ambulas. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Haruai

[tmd] 1,000 (1988 B. Comrie). Many are monolingual. Madang Province, southwest corner, southwest Mid-Ramu (Simbai) District, western Schrader Range, west of the Kobon. Alternate names: Harway, Waibuk, Wiyaw, Wiyau, Wovan, Taman. Dialects: North Waibuk (Hamil), Central Waibuk (Mambar), South Waibuk (Arama). Related to Pinai-Hagahai, though not inherently intelligible with Haruai. Word taboo is practiced, but does not seem to impede intelligibility among related language varieties. Lexical similarity 37% with Aramo, 35% with Kobon. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, East New Guinea Highlands, Piawi
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Hewa

[ham] 2,147 (1986 P. Vollrath SIL). Population includes 290 in Yoliapi (1982 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Koroba District; Enga Province, Lagaip District; Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Lagaip River area, in the mountains north of Duna and Ipili language area, from 8 miles south of the Lagaip River and northward up to the high peaks of the Central Range, which is the political and physical boundary between the Sepik region and the highlands, a land area basically 50 miles from east to west and 20 miles maximum north to south, or 1,000 sq. miles of area. Alternate names: Sisimin. Dialects: Upper Lagaip, Central Lagaip, Lower Lagaip, North Hewa. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio
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Heyo

[auk] 2,708 (2000 census). 10% monolinguals. Sandaun Province, Nuku District. Alternate names: Arinua, Arinwa, Arima, Lolopani, Wan Wan, Wanib, Ruruhip. Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Yahang. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper
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Hote

[hot] 2,237 (2000 census). Population includes 1,909 Hote and 328 Misim. Morobe Province, Lae District, Francisco River area. Alternate names: Ho'tei, Hotec, Malei. Dialects: Hote, Misim (Musim, Ombalei). Lexical similarity 90% between Hote and Misim, 70% with Yamap. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote
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Hula

[hul] 3,000 (1987 SIL). Central Province, Hood Peninsula. Alternate names: Vulaa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara
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Huli

[hui] 70,000 (1991 UBS). Southern Highlands Province around Tari, and southern fringe of Enga Province. Alternate names: Huli-Hulidana, Huri. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Huli
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Humene

[huf] 935 (2000). Central Province, lower edge of Sogeri Plateau and adjacent plain between Gaire and Kapakapa villages. Manugoro is principal village. Dialects: Lagume (Lakume, Manukolu), Humene. Lexical similarity 65% to 74% with Kwale (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Kwalean
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Iamalele

[yml] 2,800 (1987 SIL). 40% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Bwaidoka District, west Fergusson Island. Alternate names: Yamalele. Dialects: Didigavu, Gwabegwabe, Masimasi, Central Yamalele, Southern Yamalele. Lexical similarity 64% with Kalokalo (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga
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Iatmul

[ian] 8,442 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti and Angoram districts, Sepik River villages from Tambunum to Japandai, Kundungay area. Alternate names: Big Sepik, Ngepma Kwundi, Gepma Kwudi, Gepma Kwundi. Dialects: Nyaura, Palimbei. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Idi

[idi] 1,608 (2000 census). Population includes 774 Idi, 834 Tame. Western Province, northwest of Agob, east of Nambo language. Alternate names: Tame, Dimsisi, Dimisi, Diblaeg. Dialects: Tame, Idi. One end of a dialect cluster stretching to Agob. Distinct from but close to Agob. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Pahoturi
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Iduna

[viv] 6,000 (1984 SIL). Milne Bay Province, north coast, Goodenough Island, Esa'ala District. Alternate names: Vivigana, Vivigani. Dialects: Waibula, Ufaufa, Idakamenai, Belebele, Kalauna, Goiala, Ufufu, Central Vivigani. Lexical similarity 72% with Bwaidoka (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga
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Igana

[igg] 200 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, west of Josephstaal. Dialects: Related to Romkun, Breri, Kominimung, Akrukay, Itutang, Inapang. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan
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Ikobi-Mena

[meb] 650 (1977 SIL). Population includes 350 Ikobi, 300 Mena (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Gulf Province, south of Kibirowi Island, around upper Omati River and around Middle Turama River. Alternate names: Kopo-Monia, Kasere, Wailemi, Meni, Ikobi Kairi. Dialects: Meni, Mena, Pimuru, Gorau, Utabi. Closest language is Omati (Mini). Wurm and Hattori treat Ikobi and Mena as separate languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Turama-Omatian
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Imbongu

[imo] 42,500 (2000 census). 15% monolingual. Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu District. Alternate names: Imbo Ungu, Ibo Ugu, Imbonggo, Awa, Aua, Au, Imbo Ungo. Dialects: Awa (Aua, Au). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Hagen, Kaugel
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Imonda

[imn] 250 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, near Imonda airstrip. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris
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Inapang

[mzu] 1,611 (1990 census). Madang Province, Josephstaal Subdistrict. Alternate names: Midsivindi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan
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Inoke-Yate

[ino] 10,000 (1993 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Alternate names: Inoke, Yate. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria
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Ipiko

[ipo] 200 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, 5 miles up Pie River beyond Baimuri, villages of Ipiko and Pahemuba. Alternate names: Ipikoi, Higa, Epai. Dialects: Slightly related to Minanibai and Mubami. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Ipiko
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Ipili

[ipi] 26,000 (2002 SIL). 50% monolinguals. Enga Province around Porgera patrol post. Alternate names: Ipili-Paiela, Ipili-Payala. Dialects: Porgera, Paiela, Tipinini. The Paiela and Pogera dialects have minor lexical differences. The Tipinini dialect is more like Enga. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga
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Isabi

[isa] 280 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Alternate names: Maruhia. Dialects: Related languages: Biyom, Tauya, Faita. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Brahman
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Isebe

[igo] 913 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, northern bank of Gum River, west of Madang Town. Alternate names: Balahaim. Dialects: Isebe, Urukun, Mirkuk. Related to Sihan, Gumalu, Amele, Bau, Panim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum
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Iteri

[itr] 475 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Rocky Peak Mountains. Alternate names: Alowiemino, Laro, Iyo, Yinibu, Rocky Peak. Classification: Left May
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Itutang

[itu] 220 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Romkun, Breri, Kominimung, Akrukay, Igana, Inapang. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan
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Iwal

[kbm] 1,500 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, between Wau and Salamaua. Alternate names: Kaiwa. Dialects: Close to Yabem. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Kaiwa
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Iwam

[iwm] 3,000 (1998 NTM). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Mowi and Iyomempwi villages on the Sepik River and villages on the May River and surrounding lakes and tributaries as far as Premai village. Alternate names: May River. Dialects: Close to Amal and Sepik Iwam. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Iwam
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Iwam, Sepik

[iws] 2,500 (1987 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District. Villages along the Sepik River, and on lagoons north and south of the river, from Iniok village downstream to the Leonard Schultze River. Alternate names: Yawenian. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Iwam
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Iyo

[nca] 6,900 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, on the southern slopes of the Finisterre Mountains along the Nahu (Gusap) and Bure rivers, on the northern slopes along the Kipuro (Yangdala) and Kasang (Mot) rivers. Alternate names: Naho, Nabu, Nahu, Ndo, Bure. Dialects: Lexical similarity 54% with Rawa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot
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Jilim

[jil] 647 (2000 census). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kwato, Ogea, Usu, Duduela, Rerau, Yangulam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru
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Juwal

[mwb] 1,444 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, about 20 miles south southeast of Wewak. Alternate names: Mambe, Muniwara, Tumara, Tumaru. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg
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Kaian

[kct] 322 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Alternate names: Kayan. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien
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Kaiep

[kbw] 300 (1993 SIL). East Sepik Province, coast around Taul at Kep. Alternate names: Samap. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru
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Kairak

[ckr] 750 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil
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Kairiru

[kxa] 3,507 (1981 R. Wivell). East Sepik Province, Wewak District, Kairiru, Yuo, Karesau Islands, several coastal villages on the mainland between Cape Karawop and Cape Samein, and northern and western Mushu Island. Dialects: Close to Kaiep. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru
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Kakabai

[kqf] 900 (2003 SIL). 15% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Weraura and Suau Local Government Areas, inland villages, eastern tip of Papua. Alternate names: Igora. Dialects: North Kakabai, South Kakabai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Kakabai
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Kaki Ae

[tbd] 512 (2000 census). Gulf Province, southeast of Kerema. Alternate names: Tate, Raepa Tati, Tati, Lorabada, Lou. Dialects: Different from Torricelli (Lou) in East Sepik Province or Lou in Manus Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Tate
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Kalam

[kmh] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Ramu District, and in Western Highlands Province, Hagen District, along the north side of the Jimi River into the Kaironk Valley. Alternate names: Aforo, Karam. Dialects: Related to Gants, Kobon. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kalam, Kalam-Kobon
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Kalou

[ywa] 1,370 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, northwest of Hauna in the Sepik Iwam area. Alternate names: Yawa. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama
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Kaluli

[bco] 2,500 (1994 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, extending into Western Province, on the northern and western slopes of Mt. Bosavi. Alternate names: Bosavi. Dialects: Ologo, Kaluli, Walulu, Kugenesi. No significant dialect differences. Close to but different from Kasua. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi
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Kamano

[kbq] 63,170 (2000 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Henganofi districts. Alternate names: Kamano-Kafe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria
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Kamasa

[klp] 7 (2003 SIL). Morobe Province, in part of the Katsiong census unit. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper Nearly extinct.
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Kamasau

[kms] 964 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Wewak District. Segi is in Kamasau, Tring, and Wau villages, Hagi in Kenyari, Ghini in Yibab, Wandomi, and Wobu. Alternate names: Wand Tuan. Dialects: Hagi, Segi, Ghini. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg
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Kambaira

[kyy] 135 (1971 Wurm). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Kambaira
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Kamula

[xla] 800 (1998 SIL). Villages of Kamiyami (Wasapea), Aramia River area, and Keseki and Somokopa, Wawoi Falls area, Western Province. Alternate names: Wawoi. Dialects: The closest language is Pare (G. Reesink SIL 1976). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awin-Pare
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Kanasi

[soq] 2,200 (1998 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, on both sides of the main range river valleys from Mt. Thomson. Alternate names: Sona. Dialects: Lexical similarity 51% with Ginuman (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan
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Kandas

[kqw] 480 (1972 Beaumont). New Ireland Province, southwest coast, Watpi, King, and Kait villages. Alternate names: King. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai
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Kandawo

[gam] 4,000 (2003 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District in the upper Jimi headwaters, on the slopes of Mt. Wilhelm. Alternate names: Narake. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Jimi
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Kanggape

[igm] 1,082 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, west of Tanggu. Alternate names: Igom. Dialects: Related to Andarum, Tangu, Tanguat. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Ataitan
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Kaningra

[knr] 300 (2000 Wurm). East Sepik Province, Blackwater River just south of Kuvanmas Lake, 2 villages. Alternate names: Kaningara. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak
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Kaninuwa

[wat] 360 (2001). 10% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, village of Sivesive and one other small village as well as two villages on the north of Goodenough Island. Alternate names: Kaokao, Wataluma. Dialects: Lexical similarity 51% with Iduna (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are
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Kanite

[kmu] 8,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Dialects: Close to Keyagana, Inoke-Yate. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria
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Kapin

[tbx] 2,351 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, Bulolo District, 5 villages in the hills southwest of Mumeng, and settlements in Wau and Lae. Alternate names: Sambio, Taiak, Tayek, Katumene. Dialects: Kapin, Garawa (Gawawa). May be a member of the Mumeng language chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang
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Kapriman

[dju] 1,638 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Blackwater River and Korosameri River, 6 villages. Alternate names: Wasare, Mugumute. Dialects: Kapriman, Karambit. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo
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Kara

[leu] 5,000 (1998 SIL). New Ireland Province, northern New Ireland District. Alternate names: Lemusmus, Lemakot. Dialects: East Kara, West Kara, Lauan-Nonopai, Ngavalus-Lossuk, Luburua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik
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Karawa

[xrw] 63 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Lumi District, Pulwa (Bulawa) village. Alternate names: Bulawa. Dialects: Related to Awtuw, Pouye. Lexical similarity 67% with Pouye. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Ram Nearly extinct.
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Kare

[kmf] 384 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Kare
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Karkar-Yuri

[yuj] 1,142 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, along the Papua, Indonesia border. Alternate names: Yuri, Karkar. Dialects: North Central Yuri, Auia-Tarauwi, Usari. Classification: Language Isolate
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Karnai

[bbv] 915 (2000 D. Tryon). Morobe Province, 4 villages on mainland near Wasu and 3 on southwestern Umboi Island; Madang Province, 2 or 3 villages east of Saidor. Alternate names: "Barim". Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap
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Karore

[xkx] 550 (2003 SIL). West New Britain Province, Kandrian District, between the Andru and Johanna rivers. Dialects: Dialect chain with Kaulong and Getmata. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua
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Kasua

[khs] 600 (1990 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, east and south of Mt. Bosavi, northeastern corner of Western Province, and northwestern corner of Gulf Province, 6 villages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi
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Kâte

[kmg] 6,125 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District. Alternate names: Kai, Kâte Dong. Dialects: Magobineng (Bamota), Wamora (Wamola), Wemo, Parec, Wana. Those listed as dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern
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Kaulong

[pss] 4,000 (2000 Tryon). West New Britain Province, Kandrian District, southwest hinterland. Alternate names: Pasismanua, Kowlong. Dialects: Kaulong, East Inland Kaulong. Dialect cluster. Miu, Bao, and Senseng are treated as dialects by Wurm and Hattori. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua
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Kawacha

[kcb] 12 (2000 Wurm). Morobe Province, east of Ampale, in part of the Katsiong census unit. Alternate names: Kawatsa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper Nearly extinct.
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Keapara

[khz] 19,400 (2000 D. Tryon). Central Province, coast from east of Hood Peninsula to Lalaura west of Cape Rodney. 3 villages. Alternate names: Keopara, Kerepunu. Dialects: Babaga, Kalo, Keapara (Keopara), Aroma (Arona, Aloma, Galoma), Maopa, Wanigela, Kapari, Lalaura. Dialect continuum to Hula. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara
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Kein

[bmh] 1,750 (2000 census). Madang Province, Trans-Gogol District. Alternate names: Bemal. Dialects: Related to Girawa, Munit. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Kokon
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Kela

[kcl] 2,145 (1980 census). Morobe Province, southern coast of Huon Gulf, between Salamaua and Kui, Paiawa River. 10 villages. Alternate names: Gela, Kelana, Laukanu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North
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Kele

[sbc] 600 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, south coast inland, Buyang, Droia, Kawaliap, Koruniat, Tingau. Alternate names: Gele'. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Kenati

[gat] 950 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Wonenara District. All 3 villages are within ten miles of Wonenara. Alternate names: Kenathi, Ganati, Aziana. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kenati
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Kerewo

[kxz] 2,200 (1975 Wurm). Gulf Province, west bank of Omati River, east and inland to Samoa village. Alternate names: Kerewa, Kerewa-Goari. Dialects: Gibario (Goaribari). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian
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Kesawai

[xes] 767 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Namuya. Dialects: Related to Sinsauru, Asas, Sausi, Dumpu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia
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Keuru

[xeu] 4,523 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Gulf Province, from the mouth of the Purari River east to the Bairu River. Alternate names: Keuro, Belepa, Haura, Haura Haela. Dialects: Aheave. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Western
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Kewa, East

[kjs] 45,000 (2000 census). Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu and Kagua districts. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa
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Kewa, West

[kew] 45,000 (2000 census). Southern Highlands Province, Kagua and Mendi districts. Alternate names: Pasuma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa
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Keyagana

[kyg] 12,284 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Okapa and Henganofi districts, Eastern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Keigana, Keiagana, Ke'yagana. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria
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Khehek

[tlx] 1,600 (1991 SIL). Manus Province, Soparibeu District. Ndrehet, Levei, and Bucho villages; Ndrehet is the center. Alternate names: Levei-Drehet, Levei-Ndrehet. Dialects: Levei (Lebei, Lebej), Drehet (Khehek, Chehek, Chechek), Bucho. Those in the Levei area speak a dialect closely related to that of Bucho in the south. A distinct language from Tulu-Bohuai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West
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Kibiri

[prm] 1,100 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, Kikori District, near Aird Hills, on several tributaries of Kikori River, villages of Tipeowo, Doibo, Paile, Babaguina, Ero, and Wowa. Alternate names: Porome, Polome. Dialects: Aird Hills (Kibiri), Porome. Unrelated to other languages in Gulf Province. Classification: Language Isolate
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Kilivila

[kij] 20,000 (2000 Tryon). 60% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Trobriand Islands. Alternate names: Kiriwina. Dialects: Kitava, Vakuta, Sinaketa. Various dialects. Lexical similarity 68% with Muyuw. Kitava Island has 80% lexical similarity. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila
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Kilmeri

[kih] 2,823 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District near Ossima. 15 villages. Alternate names: Kilmera. Dialects: Western Kilmeri (Isi), Eastern Kilmeri (Ossima). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani
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Kinalakna

[kco] 219 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Kire

[geb] 2,419 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, lower Ramu, around Garati village. Alternate names: Gire, Giri, Kire-Puire. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Misegian
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Kis

[kis] 220 (2000 D. Tryon). East Sepik Province, 10 to 20 miles south southeast of Samap, inland from the coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam
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Kiwai, Northeast

[kiw] 4,400 (1986 Foley). Population includes 1,300 in Kope, 700 in Gibaio, 1,700 in Urama, 700 in Arigibi. Gulf Province. Alternate names: Gibaio. Dialects: Gibaio, Kope (Gope, Era River), Urama, Arigibi (Anigibi). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian
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Kiwai, Southern

[kjd] 9,700 (1975 Wurm). Population includes 3,800 in Coast, 1,000 in Daru, 4,500 in Island Kiwai, 400 in Doumori. Western Province, Fly River Delta. Dialects: Doumori, Coast Kiwai, Southern Coast Kiwai, Daru Kiwai, Eastern Kiwai, Island Kiwai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian
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Kobol

[kgu] 716 (2000 census). Madang Province. Alternate names: Koguman. Dialects: Related to Pal. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Omosan
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Kobon

[kpw] 6,000 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Middle Ramu District, and Western Highlands Province on Kaironk River in lower Jimi River area north of Mt. Hagen. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kalam, Kalam-Kobon
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Koiali, Mountain

[kpx] 1,700 (1975 SIL). 50% monolingual. Central Province, Port Moresby District, north of Koita, Koiari, and Barai. One village is Efogi. Alternate names: Mountain Koiari. Dialects: Lexical similarity 50% to 57% with Grass Koiari (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Koiaric
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Koiari, Grass

[kbk] 1,700 (2000 Wurm). 10% monolingual. Central Province, east of Port Moresby and to coast. Alternate names: Koiari. Dialects: Hogeri, Lahada, Omani. Lexical similarity 60% to 65% with Koitabu (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Koiaric
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Koitabu

[kqi] 2,700 (2000 Wurm). Central Province, around Port Moresby. Alternate names: Koita. Dialects: West Koita, East Koita. Lexical similarity 60% to 65% with Grass Koiari (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Koiaric
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Koiwat

[kxt] 450 (1975 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Koiwat, Kamangaui, Seraba and Paiambit villages, between the Munguma and Nagam rivers. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Kol

[kol] 4,000 (1991 SIL). Population includes 1,300 Sui, Kol (1987). East New Britain Province, Pomio District, inland from Open Bay to the coast at Waterfall Bay. Most are on the south side of the Island. Alternate names: Kole, Kola. Dialects: Sui, Kol (Nakgaktai). Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain
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Kolom

[klm] 472 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau
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Koluwawa

[klx] 900 (1998 SIL). Milne Bay Province, northwest tip of Fergusson Island. Alternate names: Kalokalo. Dialects: Lexical similarity 64% with Iamalele (closest), and then Bwaidoka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga
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Komba

[kpf] 15,000 (2000 SIL). Morobe Province, Kabwum District. Selepet language to the northwest, Timbe language to the west, Saruwaget Mountains to the south, Cromwell Mountains to the east. Alternate names: Neng Den. Dialects: East Komba, Central Komba, West Central Komba, Border Komba, West Komba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Kombio

[xbi] 2,970 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Dreikikir District, Torricelli Mountains 31 villages. Alternate names: Endangen. Dialects: North Kombio (Mwi), West-Central Kombio (Wampukuamp), South Kombio (Yanimoi). The Mwi dialect is more distinct from the others and speakers have some difficulty in comprehension between dialects. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio
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Kominimung

[xoi] 320 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Romkun, Breri, Igana, Akrukay, Itutang, Inapang. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan
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Konai

[kxw] 600 (1991 SIL). Western Province, west side of Upper Strickland River. Alternate names: Mirapmin. Dialects: Closest to Kalamo and Agala. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland
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Konomala

[koa] 800 (1985 SIL). New Ireland Province, southeastern coast. 8 villages. Dialects: Laket, Konomala. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai
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Kopar

[xop] 229 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Murik. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Nor
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Korafe

[kpr] 3,625 (2003 SIL). Population includes 2,755 in Korafe dialect and 850 in Yegha dialect living in the area. Oro Province, Tufi District, on the headlands (fiord system) of Cape Nelson. Alternate names: Korape, Korafi, Kwarafe, Kailikaili. Dialects: Korafe, Yegha (Yega, Mokorua). Yega dialect is distinct from Gona, also called 'Yega'. Gaina may also be a dialect. Lexical similarity 56% to 61% with Baruga (closest), 50% with Ewage dialect of Ewage Notu (Dutton 1971). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Korak

[koz] 512 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Kowan
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Koro

[kxr] 400 (1983 SIL). Manus Province. Dialects: Close to, and possibly intelligible with, Papitalai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Koromira

[kqj] 1,562 (1990 SIL). Population includes 1,448 Koromira and 114 Koianu. Bougainville Province, Kieta District, central mountains and southeast coast. Dialects: Koromira, Koianu. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi
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Kosena

[kze] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Okapa districts. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa
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Kovai

[kqb] 4,500 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Siassi District, Umboi or Rooke Island, 12 villages. Alternate names: Umboi, Kobai, Kowai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Kovai
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Kove

[kvc] 6,750 (1994 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest coast. 24 villages, most on small islands off the coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai
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Kowaki

[xow] 25 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Mawak, Pamosu, Musar, Wanambre. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran Nearly extinct.
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Krisa

[ksi] 421 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province near coast. Dialects: Related to Rawo, Puari, Warapu. Classification: Sko, Krisa
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Kuanua

[ksd] 61,000 (1991 SIL). East New Britain Province, Rabaul District, Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Tolai, Gunantuna, Tinata Tuna, Tuna, Blanche Bay, New Britain Language. Dialects: Vunadidir, Rapitok, Raluana, Vanumami, Livuan, Matupit, Kokopo, Kabakada, Nodup, Kininanggunan, Rakunei, Rebar, Watom, Masawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai
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Kube

[kgf] 6,000 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Dindiu District, at the eastern headwaters of the Mongi River, on the eastern slopes of the lower Kua River valley and Foris River Valley. Alternate names: Mongi, Hube. Dialects: Kurungtufu, Yoangen (Yoanggeng). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern
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Kubo

[jko] 1,000. Western Province, Lake Murray District, northern half of Upper Strickland Census District, east of Strickland River, north of the Samo. Dialects: Related to Samo and Gobasi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland
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Kumalu

[ksl] 2,583 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Alternate names: Kumara. Dialects: A member of the Mumeng language cluster. Some intelligibility of Dambi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng
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Kuman

[kue] 80,000 (1994 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals. Simbu Province, northern third, overlapping into Minj Subprovince of Western Highlands Province. Alternate names: Chimbu, Simbu. Dialects: Kuman, Nagane (Genagane, Genogane), Yongomugi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu
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Kumukio

[kuo] 552 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Alternate names: Kumokio. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Kuni

[kse] 4,500 (1993 SIL). Central Province, Kairuku and southwest Goilala districts, towards Port Moresby, south of Mekeo. Dialects: Lexical similarity 52% with Lala, 47% with Mekeo, 40% with Waima, the closest varieties. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear
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Kuni-Boazi

[kvg] 2,500 (2001 SIL). Western Province, Lake Murray District. None now in Papua, Indonesia (1978 SIL). Alternate names: Boazi, Boadji, Bwadji, Kuni, Kuini. Dialects: Kuni, Wamak, Khoamak, Sengeze, Ingias, Aewa. Related to Zimakani and Marind. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Boazi
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Kunimaipa

[kup] 11,000 (1991 SIL). Population includes 1,429 in Morobe Province (1978 McElhanon). Central Province, northern Goilala District; Morobe Province, Wau District. Dialects: Karuama, Kâte (Hate), Gajili (Gajila, Gazili, Hazili). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan, Kunimaipa
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Kunja

[pep] 294 (2003 SIL). Western Province, extreme southwest. Alternate names: Lower Morehead, Thundai-Kanza, Peremka. Dialects: Gambadi, Semariji, Kánchá, Kámá. Related to Kanum, Aramba, Bothar, Rouku. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda
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Kuot

[kto] 2,400 (2002 SIL). New Ireland Province, northwest coast. 9 villages. Alternate names: Kuat, Panaras. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Kuot
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Kurti

[ktm] 3,000 (2002 SIL). Manus Province, north central coast. Alternate names: Kuruti, Kuruti-Pare, Ndrugul. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Kwanga

[kwj] 10,000 (2001 SIL). East Sepik Province, extending beyond the western boundary of Maprik District; Makru-Klaplei Division, Nuku District; Saundaun Province, east of Mehek. 40 villages. Alternate names: Kawanga, Gawanga. Dialects: Apos, Bongos (Bongomamsi, Bongomaise, Nambi), Tau (Kubiwat), Wasambu, Yubanakor (Daina). A dialect cluster of 5 subdialects, 2 main dialects. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma
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Kwato

[kop] 778 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Alternate names: Waupe. Dialects: Related to Uya, Ogea, Duduela, Rerau, Jilim, Yangulam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru
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Kwoma

[kmo] 3,000 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, along the Sepik River, along the Sanchi River, 12 villages. Alternate names: Washkuk. Dialects: Kwoma (Washkuk), Nukuma. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma
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Kwomtari

[kwo] 600 (1998 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, north of Namia. 6 villages. Dialects: West Central Kwomtari, Ekos-Yenabi-Maragin. Classification: Kwomtari-Baibai, Kwomtari
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Kyaka

[kyc] 15,368 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Enga Province. Alternate names: Baiyer, Enga-Kyaka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga
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Kyenele

[kql] 1,253 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Giling village, Yuat River. Alternate names: Keñele, Keyele, Kenen Birang, Kyenying-Barang, Kenying Bulang, Miyak. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Langam, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat
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Label

[lbb] 144 (1979 census). New Ireland Province, southwest coast, Nasko and Tampakar villages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai
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Labu

[lbu] 1,600 (1989 SIL). Population includes 800 in Labu-Butu. Morobe Province, coast near the mouth of the Markham River. 3 communities: Labu-Butu, Labu-Miti, and Labu-Tali. Alternate names: Labu', Labo, Hapa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Labu
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Laeko-Libuat

[lkl] 719 (2003 SIL). Population includes 518 in area and 20 outside. Sandaun Province, Torricelli Mountains, west of Mehek. Alternate names: Laeko, Laeko-Limbuat. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Laeko-Libuat
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Lala

[nrz] 989 (2003 SIL). Central Province, between Kuni and Waima, just inland from the coast and south of Yule Island. Alternate names: Nala, Ala'ala, Pokau, Nara. Dialects: Lexical similarity 57% with Toura (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear
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Lamogai

[lmg] 3,653 (1980 Johnston). West New Britain Province, northwest interior, and 2 regions on the south coast. Alternate names: Mulakaino, Akiuru. Dialects: Ibanga (Ivanga), Pulie-Rauto (Rauto, Roto), Lomogai, Musen, Paret. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling
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Langam

[lnm] 424 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Mongol, Yaul. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Langam, Mongol-Langam
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Lantanai

[lni] 300 (1990 SIL). Bougainville Province, Kieta District, Piruneu' village. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi
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Laua

[luf] 1 (1987 SIL). Central Province, north and west of Laua. Alternate names: Labu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan Nearly extinct.
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Lavatbura-Lamusong

[lbv] 1,308 (1972 Beaumont). New Ireland Province, central. Alternate names: Lamasong. Dialects: Ugana, Kontu, Lavatbura, Lamusong (Lamasong). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak
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Lawunuia

[tgi] 550 (1977 Lincoln). Bougainville Province, Piva River. Alternate names: Nagarige, Nagarege, Naghareghe, Piva. Dialects: Amun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni
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Leipon

[lek] 650 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Lolo village, Hauwai, Ndrilo, and Pityilu islands. Alternate names: Pitilu, Pityilu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Lele

[lle] 1,300 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Manus Island. Alternate names: Lele Hai, Hai, Usiai, Moanus, Manus, Elu-Kara. Dialects: Sabon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Lembena

[leq] 1,756 (2000 census). 750 monolinguals. Enga Province, northeast corner, and into East Sepik Province. 8 villages: Eleme, Yambaitoko, Saut Isataele, Mosope, Itopeno, Pipitesa, Madawesa (Olimolo), and Mokosele. Alternate names: Nanimba Pii, Uyalipa Pii, Lembena Pii, Wapi Pii. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga
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Lemio

[lei] 271 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, several villages on coast near Saidor. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau
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Lenkau

[ler] 250 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 Tryon). Manus Province, southwest Rambutyo Island. 1 village only. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands
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Lesing-Gelimi

[let] 929 (1982 SIL). Eastern end of West New Britain Province, south coast, Kaskas Island and Amio village (Lesing dialect), Atui Island and Paronga village (Gelimi dialect). Alternate names: Lesing-Atui, Atui. Dialects: Lesing, Gelimi (Atui). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe
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Lihir

[lih] 12,571 (2000 census). New Ireland Province, Lihir Island, and 3 smaller islands. Alternate names: Lir. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar
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Likum

[lib] 80 (2000 Wurm). Manus Province. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West
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Lilau

[lll] 449 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Bogia District. Alternate names: Ngaimbom. Classification: Torricelli, Monumbo
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Loniu

[los] 460 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Lolak and Loniu villages, south coast of Los Negros Island. Alternate names: Lonio, Ndroku. Dialects: Close to Bipi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu
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Lote

[uvl] 5,500 (2004 SIL). East New Britain Province, Pomio District, southeast coast and inland near Cape Dampier. Alternate names: Uvol. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen
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Lou

[loj] 1,000 (1994 SIL). Manus Province, Lou Island. Dialects: Rei. Three very similar dialects. Rei is dominant. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands
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Lusi

[khl] 2,000 (1994 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest coast. Alternate names: Kaliai. Dialects: Kaliai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai
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Ma

[mjn] 570 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 570. Madang Province, 10 to 20 miles southwest of Saidor, Mibu village and Tariknan village along with hamlets of each village. Alternate names: Mawam, Mebu. Dialects: Mina. Related to Nankina (Jerung). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna
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Madak

[mmx] 3,000 (1985 UBS). New Ireland Province, Central New Ireland District. Alternate names: Mandak, Lelet. Dialects: Danu, Katingan, Lelet, Mesi, Malom. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak
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Madi

[grg] 383 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Gira. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot
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Magori

[zgr] 100 (2000 Wurm). Central Province, eastern end of Table Bay, lower reaches of Bailebo-Tavenei River. Dialects: Closest to Suau. Vocabulary is heavily influenced by Mailu. Ouma, Yoba, and Bina are separate languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric Nearly extinct.
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Maia

[sks] 4,346 (2000 census). Population includes 3,712 in main dialect, 634 in southern dialect. Madang Province, Bogia District, on the mainland south of Manam Island. Alternate names: Saki, Pila, Suaro, Turutap, Yakiba, Maya, Banar. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kaukombaran
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Maiadomu

[mzz] 726 (2000 census). Milne Bay Province, Bwaidoka District, East Fergusson Island. Alternate names: Maiadom. Dialects: Lexical similarity 62% with Iamalele, 35% with Boselewa, 32% with Gameta, 20% with Dobu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga
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Maiani

[tnh] 3,036 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Alternate names: Tani, Banara, Wagimuda, Miani South. Dialects: Different from Mala (Banara). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kaukombaran
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Mailu

[mgu] 6,000 (1980 UBS). Central Province, south coast, Gadaisu to Baramata, Table Bay and Toulon Island. Alternate names: Magi. Dialects: Domara, Darava, Asiaoro, Derebai, Island, Geagea, Borebo, Ilai, Baibara. Related to Laua. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan
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Maisin

[mbq] 2,612 (2000 census). Population includes 600 in Kosirava dialect. Oro Province, villages along coast of Collingwood Bay and Kosirava swamp. Alternate names: Maisan. Dialects: Kosirava, Maisin. No closely related languages. Dialects have 73% lexical similarity, but there is little interaction between the speakers. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Maisin
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Maiwa

[mti] 1,400 (1998 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, on the northern slopes and foothills of the Meneao Range eastward from the Mt. Tantam Valley of the Ruaba River; it reaches the coast of Moi Biri Bay, extending into Oro Province. Dialects: Maiwa, Oren, Manigara, Gairen, Gwareta. Closest lexical similarity is with Mapena at 41%. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan
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Maiwala

[mum] 2,448 (2000 census). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Huhu Local Government Area, at the head of Milne Bay. Dialects: Maiwala is the major dialect. Lexical similarity 67% with Tawala at Diwala village (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota
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Makayam

[aup] 1,298 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Sumogi Island in Fly Estuary, Adulu, Lewada, and Suame villages. Giribam dialect spoken in Janor village. Alternate names: Aturu, Atura, Adulu, Makaeyam, Tirio. Dialects: Giribam. Lexical similarity 79% with Giribam, 52% with Bitur, 47% with Were, 32% with Baramu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio
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Makolkol

[zmh] 7 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil Nearly extinct.
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Mala

[ped] 1,390 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Alternate names: Malala, Pay, Pai, Alam, Banara, Dagoi, Hatzfeldhafen, Dagui. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kaukombaran
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Malalamai

[mmt] 548 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Rai coast east and west of Saidor; Malalamai and Bonga villages. Alternate names: Bonga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai
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Malas

[mkr] 650 (2003 SIL). Madang Province near Tokain. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Mabuan
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Malasanga

[mqz] 900 (2000 census). Morobe Province, north coast, two villages: Malasanga and Singorokai. Dialects: Malasanga, Singorokai. Separate from Karnai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap
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Male

[mdc] 972 (2000 census). Madang Province, coast south of Bom. Alternate names: Koliku. Dialects: Related to Bongu and Anjam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim
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Maleu-Kilenge

[mgl] 5,200 (1983 census). Population includes 1,561 Kilenge. West New Britain Province, Talasea District, western tip. Alternate names: Idne. Dialects: Maleu, Kilenge (Kaitarolea). Lexical similarity 93% between Maleu and Kilenge. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Kilenge-Maleu
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Mali

[gcc] 2,200 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, eastern Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Gaktai. Dialects: A distinct language within the Baining ethnic group. Two dialects. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil
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Malinguat

[sic] 9,000 (1986 PBT). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, Sepik Plains south of Maprik. Alternate names: Tshwosh, Tshuosh, Kwaruwikwundi, Sepik Plains. Dialects: Koiwat, Burui, Chimbian, Central Sawos, Eastern Sawos. Close to Gaikundi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Malol

[mbk] 3,330. Sandaun Province, around Malol village. Alternate names: Malon, Malolo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau
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Mamaa

[mhf] 198 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, 1 village. Alternate names: Mama. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Mamusi

[kdf] 6,000 (1985 SIL). East New Britain Province, southeast coast, inland on the Melkoi and Torlu rivers. Inland villages are up to 40 km from the coast. Alternate names: Kakuna. Dialects: Mamusi, Melkoi (Kakuna). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen
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Manam

[mva] 7,949 (2003 SIL). Manam and Boesa islands, Madang Province, Bogia District, and in Sepa and Wanami on the adjacent mainland. Alternate names: Manum. Dialects: Wanami. Related to Wogeo, Biem, Sepa, Medebur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam
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Manambu

[mle] 2,105 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti Subprovince, 3 villages along the Sepik River. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Mandara

[tbf] 2,500 (1985 SIL). New Ireland Province, Simberi, Tatau, Tabar and one other island. Alternate names: Madara, Tabar. Dialects: Simberi, Tatau, Tabar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik
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Manem

[jet] 500 in Papua New Guinea (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 900. Sandaun Province, 1 village; Skotiau. Also spoken in Indonesia (Papua). Alternate names: Yeti, Jeti, Wembi, Skofro. Dialects: Lexical similarity 50% with Waris. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris
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Mangseng

[mbh] 2,500 (1998 SIL). West New Britain and East New Britain provinces, area south of Commodore Bay (north coast, West New Britain), through to Montagu Harbor (south coast of East New Britain) on the east and through to Fulleborn Harbor (south coast of West New Britain) on the west. Alternate names: Mangsing, Masegi, Maseki. Dialects: Umua, Marapu. Arawe chain isolate, most closely related to West Arawe. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe
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Mape

[mlh] 5,117 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province along the Mape River. Dialects: Naga, Mape, Nigac, Fukac. Close to Kâte, which is the lingua franca. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern
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Mapena

[mnm] 274 (1973 SIL). Milne Bay Province, around Mt. Gwoira. Dialects: Lexical similarity 51% with Daga (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan
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Maramba

[myd] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Langam, Yuat-Maramba, Maramba
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Mari

[hob] 810 (2000 D. Tryon). Madang Province, upper Ramu River. 4 villages. Alternate names: Hop. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain
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Mari

[mbx] 80 (2000 Wurm). East Sepik Province, near Mari Lake and on Salumei River. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo
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Maria

[mds] 870 (1980 census). Central Province, Marshall Lagoon to Mt. Brown; a remote area. Alternate names: Manubara. Dialects: Didigaru, Maria, Gebi, Oibu, Amota, Imila, Uderi. Lexical similarity 63% with Doromu (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Manubaran
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Marik

[dad] 3,500 (1998 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District, inland around Gogol River. 10 villages. Alternate names: Dami, Ham. Dialects: Northern Marik, Western Marik, Southern Marik. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Southern
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Maring

[mbw] 11,000 (1998 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. A small number are over the Bismarck Range in Madang Province. 18 villages. Alternate names: Mareng, Yoadabe-Watoare. Dialects: Central Maring, Eastern Maring, Timbunki, Tsuwenki, Karamba, Kambegl. Speakers of all dialects understand the central one. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Jimi
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Matepi

[mqe] 284 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Rapting, Wamas, Samosa, Murupi, Saruga, Nake, Mosimo, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Mato

[met] 580 (2002 SIL). Morobe Province, north coast of Huon Peninsula, near Morobe-Madang provincial border, Uruwa River plain 38 km west of Wasu, 20 km north of Sapmanga, approximately 55 km southeast of Saidor. Alternate names: Nenaya, Nengaya, Nineia. Dialects: Bonea, Nanaya. Lexical similarity 67% with Ronji, 39% with Karnai and Arop-Lukep, 38% with Malasanga, 29% with Sio, 23% with Tuam-Mutu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya
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Matukar

[mjk] 434 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 434. Madang Province, 40 miles north of Madang town around Matukar. Dialects: Related to Gedaged. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern
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Mauwake

[mhl] 2,392 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, east of Malala High School. Alternate names: Ulingan, Mawake. Dialects: Related to Moere. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kumilan
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Mawak

[mjj] 25 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province, southwest of Mauwake. Dialects: Related to Hinahon. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran Nearly extinct.
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Mawan

[mcz] 471 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Gogol River area. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Mbo-Ung

[mux] 40,948 (2000 census). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. Some also in Tambul and Lower Kaugel districts. Alternate names: Tembalo, Bo-Ung, Mboung. Dialects: Miyemu (Miyem), Mara-Gomu, Tembalo (Tembaglo). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Hagen, Kaugel
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Mbula

[mna] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Siassi District, 6 villages on eastern Umboi Island, 1 village on Sakar Island. Alternate names: Mangap-Mbula, Mangaaba, Mangaawa, Mangaava, Mangap. Kaimanga. Dialects: Mbula (Central Mbula), Northern Mbula, Gauru, Sakar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mangap-Mbula
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Medebur

[mjm] 514 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 514. Madang Province, coast just north of Sikor at Medebur. Dialects: Related to Wogeo, Biem, Sepa, Manam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam
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Mehek

[nux] 6,300 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Nuku District, Makru-Klaplei area, lower foothills of Torricelli Mountains, southeast of Siliput. 9 large villages. Alternate names: Nuku, Me'ek, Driafleisuma, Indinogosima. Dialects: Lexical similarity 51% with Pahi (closest). Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama
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Mekeo

[mek] 19,000 (2003 SIL). Central Province, Kaiyuku District, inland, bounded on the west by the Waima, on the east by the Kuni and Kunimaipa. Extends into Gulf Province. Alternate names: Mekeo-Kovio. Dialects: East Mekeo, West Mekeo, North Mekeo, Northwest Mekeo (Kovio). Kovio is a peripheral dialect. The four dialects are mutually unintelligible to each other's speakers, except for North and West Mekeo, but most Mekeo are reported to have familiarity with neighboring dialects. Kovio, however, is not contiguous to the other dialects. Kovio has 81% lexical similarity with West Mekeo and North Mekeo, and 79% with East Mekeo. West and East Mekeo have 87% lexical similarity. North Mekeo has 99% lexical similarity with West Mekeo and 87% with East Mekeo. Mekeo has 41% with Waima. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear
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Mekmek

[mvk] 1,036 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Changriwa, Kyenele, Biwat, Bun. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Langam, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat
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Melpa

[med] 130,000 (1991 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. Alternate names: Medlpa, Hagen. Dialects: Tembagla. Only slight dialect differences. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Hagen
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Mende

[sim] 5,697 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Nuku District, fifteen villages east of Mehek. Alternate names: Seim. Dialects: Lexical similarity 49% to nearest Kwanga village. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma
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Mengen

[mee] 8,400 (1982 SIL). East New Britain Province, Pomio District, Jacquinot Bay and inland. 20 villages. Alternate names: Poeng. Dialects: North Coast Mengen (Maeng), South Coast Mengen (Poeng), Bush Mengen (Inland Mengen, Longueinga). Some linguists separate Poeng (Mengen 1, Bush Mengen) and Maeng (Mengen 2, Orford, Maenge) into two languages (see, for example, Ross and Tryon 2000). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen
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Menya

[mcr] 20,000 (1998 SIL). Morobe Province, Menyamya District, north along the Tauri River and its tributaries. Alternate names: Menye, Menyama. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper
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Meramera

[mxm] 2,000 (1995 SIL). 5% monolingual. West New Britain Province, Bialla District, northwest coast. Alternate names: Ubili, Melamela. Dialects: Lolobao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez
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Mese

[mci] 4,000 (1997 census). Morobe Province, Lae District, Boana Subdistrict, interior north of Lae. 14 villages: Samanzing, Biliman, Tusulu, Hobu, Zezegi, Momolili, Zitare, Malapipi, Kwamu, Busu, Nomenga, Zitale-Ogaw, Tuzing, Kaisia. Sambuen is a border community with both Nabak and Mese speakers. Alternate names: Mesem, Momolili, Momalili. Dialects: West-Central Mese, East Mese, Momolili, Zezagi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Mian

[mpt] 2,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District, north part of the Fak (Hak) and Aki River valleys, headwaters of the August River and upper May River. Villages: Nenebil, Suganga, Blimo, and Wagarabai. Alternate names: Mianmin. Dialects: Upper August River, Usage, Mianmin. Dialects have 75% to 83% lexical similarity. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain
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Miani

[pla] 1,500 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, inland. Alternate names: Bonaputa-Mopu, Tani, Miani North. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kaukombaran
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Migabac

[mpp] 1,300 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, Masaweng River area. 5 villages divided among 3 dialects: Hudewa and Waringai; Ago; Butengka and Kapawa. Alternate names: Migaba'. Dialects: North Migabac, South Migabac, Central Migabac. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern
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Minanibai

[mcv] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Ikobi Kairi and Goaribari Census districts, near the mouth of the Omati River, Gulf Province. Alternate names: Pepeha, Eme-Eme, Hei. Dialects: Related to Mubami. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai
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Minaveha

[mvn] 2,000 (2002 SIL). 600 monolinguals. Milne Bay Province, Bolubolu District, southwest tip of Fergusson Island near Mapamoiwa station. Alternate names: Minavega, Kukuya. Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Iamalele (closest), Koluawawa, and Bwaidoka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota
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Mindiri

[mpn] 80 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province, along the Rai Coast west of Saidor, 1 village. Dialects: Close to Biliau and Wab. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe
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Minigir

[vmg] 598 (2000 WCD). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula, Lungalunga village on Ataliklikun Bay. Alternate names: Lungalunga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava
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Misima-Paneati

[mpx] 18,000 (2002 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Milne Bay Province, Misima District, Misima Island, Panaieti, and all the islands of the Calvados Chain to (not including) Panawina, Alcester, Ole, and Tewatewan Islands, and Bowagis on Woodlark Island. 32 villages. Alternate names: Panaieti, Panaeati, Paneyate, Paneate, Panayeti. Dialects: Nasikwabw (Tokunu), Tewatewa. Lexical similarity 33% with Nimowa and Dobu (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Misima
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Miu

[mpo] 500 (1998 NTM). West New Britain Province, Gimi Rauto District, southwest interior. Alternate names: Myu. Dialects: A separate language from Kaulong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua
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Moere

[mvq] 50 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Mauwake, Bepour. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kumilan
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Moikodi

[mkp] 571 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). 50% are monolingual. Oro Province, north slopes of Owen Stanley Range around Mt. Brown down to Komi west of Foasi Creek. Alternate names: Doriri. Dialects: Several dialects. Lexical similarity 65% to 73% with Aneme Wake (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban
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Mokerang

[mft] 200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Manus Province, north Los Negros Island and Ndrilo Island. Alternate names: Mokareng, Mokoreng. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu
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Molima

[mox] 3,186 (1972 census). Population includes 416 in Fagululu, 600 in Salakahadi. Milne Bay Province, 'Esa'ala District, West Fergusson Island, inland villages of the Salakahadi and Ebadidi areas, central west coast (Fagululu) and central south coast (Molima). Alternate names: Ebadidi, Salakahadi, Morima, Fagululu. Dialects: Tala'ai, Ai'alu, Tosila'ai. One dialect is on the coast, two dialects are remote in the mountains. Lexical similarity 56% with Dobu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga
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Momare

[msz] 650 (2003 SIL). Morobe Province, north of Masaweng River. Alternate names: Momale, Momole. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern
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Mondropolon

[npn] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Manus Province, north central coast, Manus Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West
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Mongol

[mgt] 336 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Langam, Yaul. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Langam, Mongol-Langam
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Monumbo

[mxk] 412 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Classification: Torricelli, Monumbo
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Morawa

[mze] 755 (1973 SIL). Central Province, south coast around Cloudy Bay. Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Binahari (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan
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Moresada

[msx] 197 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Alternate names: Murisapa, Murusapa-Sarewa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Pomoikan
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Morigi

[mdb] 700 (1975 Wurm). Gulf Province, Lower Turama Census Division. Alternate names: Morigi Island, Wariadai, Turama River Kiwai, Dabura. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian
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Mosimo

[mqv] 50 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Rapting, Wamas, Samosa, Murupi, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Motu

[meu] 14,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central Province, in and around Port Moresby, villages along the coast from Manumanu, Galley Reach, to GabaGaba (Kapakapa). Alternate names: True Motu, Pure Motu. Dialects: Western Motu, Eastern Motu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara
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Motu, Hiri

[hmo] Very few first-language speakers (1992 T. Dutton). Central Province, in and around Port Moresby area, also throughout Oro, Central, Gulf, and part of Milne Bay provinces, some in Western Province. Alternate names: Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, Hiri. Dialects: Austronesian Hiri Motu, Papuan Hiri Motu. Linguistically a pidginization of True Motu. Also influenced by English, Tok Pisin, and Polynesian languages. Speakers of Hiri Motu cannot understand Motu. There are phonological and grammatical differences. Lexical similarity 90% with Motu. Classification: Pidgin, Motu based
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Mouk-Aria

[mwh] 626 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southeast coast to northwest coast, Kandrian District. Alternate names: Aria-Mouk. Dialects: Mouk (Mok), Tourai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling
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Mubami

[tsx] 1,730 (2002 SIL). Western Province, northeastern corner, middle and lower Wawoi River and Guavi River, villages of Parieme, Sogae (Sipsi), Diwami, Kubeai, Waliho (Warehou), Paueme, Ugu (Kala) on Aramia River. Alternate names: Tao-Suamato, Tao-Suame, Dausuami, Dausame, Ta. Dialects: Lexical similarity 42% with Minanibai (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai
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Muduapa

[wiv] 8,800 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, Talasea District, Vitu and Mudua islands off the northwest coast. Alternate names: Vitu, Witu. Dialects: 2 or 3 dialects. The variety spoken on Mudua Island may be a separate language. Related to Bali. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu
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Mufian

[aoj] 11,000 (1998 SIL). Population includes 6,000 Filifita (1999 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, Torricelli Mountains, west of Maprik. 36 villages. Alternate names: Southern Arapesh, Muhiang, Muhian. Dialects: Supari, Balif, Filifita (Ilahita), Iwam-Nagalemb, Nagipaem. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh
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Mum

[kqa] 3,286 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Alternate names: Katiati. Dialects: Related to Sileibi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Sikan
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Munit

[mtc] 911 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Trans-Gogol District. Dialects: Related to Girawa, Kein. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Kokon
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Munkip

[mpv] 137 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, two villages. Dialects: Closest to Uri. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Muratayak

[asx] 811 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Rai Coast District, east of Saidor. Alternate names: Asat, Murataik. Dialects: Related to Asaro'o, Bulgebi, Degenan, Forak, Guya, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup
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Murik

[mtf] 1,000 (2000 Wurm). East Sepik Province, Angoram District, on the coast west of the mouth of the Sepik River. Alternate names: Nor, Nor-Murik Lakes. Dialects: Related to Kopar. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Nor
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Murupi

[mqw] 301 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Rapting, Wamas, Samosa, Mosimo, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Musak

[mmq] 355 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, west of Astrolabe Bay on the Ramu River. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Emuan
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Musan

[mmp] 70 (2000 Wurm). Sandaun Province, village east of Amto. Alternate names: Musian, Musa. Dialects: Lexical similarity 29% with Amto. Amto and Musan 3% lexical similarity with Odiai, 18 miles north. Both average 7% lexical similarity with Left May languages. Classification: Amto-Musan
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Musar

[mmi] 684 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, inland, west of Tokain. Alternate names: Aregerek. Dialects: Related languages: Kowaki, Mawak, Pamosu, Wanambre. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran
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Musom

[msu] 200 (2000 Wurm). Morobe Province, tributary of the Busu River. Alternate names: Misatik. Dialects: A member of the Azera dialect cluster. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu
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Mussau-Emira

[emi] 5,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,000, including 3,500 who are resident in the traditional area (2000 J. Brownie SIL). New Ireland Province, St. Matthias Islands (Mussau and Emira), 150 km northwest of Kavieng. About 30% of the people live outside the language area, the majority in Kavieng. Some in Port Moresby, Lae, Goroka, Madang. Alternate names: Emira-Mussau, Musau-Emira, Mussau, Musao. Dialects: Emira, Western Mussau, Southern Mussau, Eastern Mussau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias
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Mutu

[tuc] 3,000 (1998 SIL). Morobe Province, 6 villages on the 6 Siassi Islands south of Umboi Island: Mandok, Malai, Aronai, Tuam, Mutu Malau, and Aramot, and Yam village on Umboi Island. Alternate names: Tuam-Mutu, Tuam, Tuom. Dialects: Mutu, Tuam, Malai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam
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Muyuw

[myw] 6,000 (1998). 3,000 monolinguals. Population includes 1,000 to 1,200 Iwa. Milne Bay Province, Losuia District, Woodlark Island. Alternate names: Muyu, Muyua, Murua, Muruwa, Muyuwa. Dialects: Yanaba, Lougaw (Gawa), Wamwan, Nawyem, Iwa. The Iwa dialect is halfway between Muyuw and Kilivila. Lexical similarity 68% with Kilivila. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila
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Mwatebu

[mwa] 120 (2000 Wurm). 10% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Normanby Island, north central coast, one village. Dialects: Lexical similarity 49% with Dobu (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau
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Naasioi

[nas] 10,000 (1990 SIL). Bougainville Province, Kieta District, central mountains and southeast coast. Alternate names: Nasioi, Kieta, Kieta Talk, Aunge. Dialects: Naasioi, Kongara, Orami (Guava), Pakia-Sideronsi. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi
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Nabak

[naf] 16,000 (1994 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, eastern headwaters of the Busu River. 52 villages and 30 settlements. Alternate names: Naba, Wain. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Nabi

[mty] 615 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. 3 villages. Alternate names: Mitang, Metan, Nambieb. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei
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Nafi

[srf] 157 (1988 Holzknecht). Morobe Province, Busu River. Alternate names: Sirak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu
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Nai

[bio] 595 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, adjacent to and southeast of the Angor language. 3 large villages. Alternate names: Biaka, Amini. Classification: Kwomtari-Baibai, Baibai
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Nakama

[nib] 983 (1980 census). Morobe Province, 6 villages in rugged terrain west and northwest of Boana of the south side of Saruwaged Range. Dialects: North Nakama, South Nakama. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Nakanai

[nak] 13,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West New Britain Province, Hoskins District, northwest coast. 42 villages. Alternate names: Nakonai. Dialects: Losa (Loso, Auka), Bileki (Lakalai, Muku, Mamuga), Vere (Vele, Tarobi), Ubae (Babata), Maututu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez
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Nake

[nbk] 173 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, northwest of Madang. Alternate names: Ale. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Nakwi

[nax] 275 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, south of Ama language. Villages; Nakwi-Amasu, Augot (Mumupra, Sari), Tiki, Uwau. Dialects: Lexical similarity 71% between Nakwi and Nimo. Classification: Left May
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Nali

[nss] 1,800 (1982 SIL). Population includes 200 Okro (2000 D. Tryon). Manus Province, southeast Manus Island, and southwest coast, northwest of Titan. Alternate names: Yiru. Dialects: Okro. Tryon 2000 makes Okro (200) and Nali (1,800) separate languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Nalik

[nal] 5,138 (1990 census). New Ireland Province, north central, 14 villages from 70 to 115 km from Kavieng on the east coast, and 3 villages on the west coast. Some in urban areas. Alternate names: Lugagon, Fesoa, Fessoa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik
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Nama

[nmx] 1,196 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, Ngaraita, Mata and Daraia villages immediately east of Morehead. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Nambu
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Namat

[nkm] 175 (2000 census). Western Province, Morehead District, Mibini village south of Morehead. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Nambu
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Nambo

[ncm] 713 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, five villages (Arufe, Gubam, Bebdeben, Pongariki and Derideri) bordering the Idi and Nen languages. Alternate names: Arufe, Nambu, Namna. Dialects: Nambo, Namna. The Namna dialect, spoken in Pongariki and Derideri, is being replaced by the Nambo dialect. Children in Derideri learn only the Nambo dialect. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Nambu
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Namia

[nnm] 4,944 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province (19 villages), Yellow River District, Panewai village, East Sepik Province (1 village). Areas are called Edwaki, Ameni, Wiyari, Lawo, Pabei, Iwane. Alternate names: Namie, Yellow River, Nemia, Edawapi, Lujere. Dialects: Closest to Ak and Awun. Lexical similarity 13% with Abau, 12% with May River Iwam. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Yellow River
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Namiae

[nvm] 1,200 (2003 SIL). Inland Oro Province, Afore District, on the Managalas Plateau, Kuae, Kokoro, Tahama, Sorefuna, Ubuvara villages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Baraic
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Namo

[mxw] 385 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, Mari and Tais villages on the south coast, extending inland. Alternate names: Mari, Dorro. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Nambu
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Nankina

[nnk] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, in the upper Nankina River valley. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna
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Narak

[nac] 6,223 (2000 census). 70% monolingual. Western Highlands Province, Hagen District, middle Jimi near Tabibuga. Alternate names: Ganja. Dialects: Close to Maring, North Wahgi, Kandawo. No significant dialect differences. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Jimi
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Nauna

[ncn] 100 (2000 Wurm). Manus Province, Nauna Island. 1 village. Alternate names: Naune. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands
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Nawaru

[nwr] 190 (1990 SIL). Oro Province, around upper Musa River valley. Alternate names: Sirio. Dialects: Very close to Yareba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban
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Nehan

[nsn] 6,500 (2003 SIL). Bougainville Province, Nissan Island. Alternate names: Nissan, Nihan. Dialects: Nehan, Pinipel (Pinipin). Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Nehan
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Nek

[nif] 1,500 (2002 SIL). Morobe Province, Nawaeb District, 5 villages in rugged terrain north of Boana on the south side of the Saruwaged Range. Dialects: East Nek, West Nek. Lexical similarity 65% with Nuk, less than 60% with Nakama. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Nekgini

[nkg] 430 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, west of Mot River. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot
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Neko

[nej] 315 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, coast near Biliau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot
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Neme

[nex] 305 (2002 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, Keru and Mitere villages northeast of Morehead. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Nambu
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Nen

[nqn] 250 (2002 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, Bimadeben village, between Nambo and Idi languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Nambu
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Nend

[anh] 2,000 (1991 UBS). Madang Province, between the Ramu and Sogeram rivers, around Pasinkap village. Alternate names: Nent, Angaua. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Atan
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Nete

[net] 1,000 (1982 SIL). East Sepik Province, adjoining the Hewa area. 3 villages. Alternate names: Iniai, Malamauda, Malaumanda. Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Bisorio of East Sepik. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga
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Ngaing

[nnf] 2,023 (2000 census). Madang Province, 15 villages, foothills from coast to Finisterre Range, southwest of Saidor. Alternate names: Sor, Mailang. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot
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Ngala

[nud] 178 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, one village in Ambunti District. Alternate names: Kara, Sogap, Swagup. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Ngalum

[szb] 8,000 in Papua New Guinea (1981). Sandaun Province. Dialects: Ngalum, Apmisibil, Sibil. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain
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Nii

[nii] 12,000 (1991 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. Alternate names: Ek Nii. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Wahgi
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Niksek

[gbe] 926 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, at the headwaters of the eastern branch of the Leonhard Schultze and upper Niksek (April) rivers. 200 are at a new settlement at Niksek airport. Also at Sumwari, and a few in 2 other villages. Alternate names: Meiyari, Sumwari. Dialects: Gabiano (Kabiano), Meiyari ("Paka"), Setiali. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio
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Nimi

[nis] 1,381 (1980 census). Morobe Province, upper Erap River, south of the Saruwaged Range. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Nimo

[niw] 350 (1998 NTM). East Sepik Province, southeast of Ama language. Villages; Nimo (Boyemo), Wasuai, Didipas (including Uburu site), Yuwaitri (moved from Aimi site to Wanawo site), Fowiom, Uwawi, Wamwiu, Binuto, Arakau. Alternate names: Nimo-Wasawai. Dialects: Lexical similarity 71% between Nakwi and Nimo. Classification: Left May
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Nimoa

[nmw] 1,100 (census). 40% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Misima District, group of islands just west of Sud-Est. Alternate names: Nimowa. Dialects: Panawina, Sabari, Panatinani, Western Point. Lexical similarity 44% with Tagula (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest
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Ningera

[nby] 147 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, east of Vanimo, north of Bewani and Ossima. Alternate names: Nagira, Negira, Ninggera. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani
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Ninggerum

[nxr] 5,146 in Papua New Guinea (2000 census). 40% are monolingual. Population total all countries: 6,146. Western Province between the Ok Birim and Ok Tedi rivers, extending east of the Ok Tedi to the main road linking Kiunga and Tabubil, and north to the main mountain range. Also spoken in Indonesia (Papua). Alternate names: Ninggrum, Ninggirum, Ningerum, Niyium, Kativa, Kasiwa, Obgwo, Tedi, Tidi. Dialects: Kasuwa, Daupka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland
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Ningil

[niz] 952 (2000 census). Sandaun Province. Dialects: Related to Olo, Yau, Yis, Valman. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Nobonob

[gaw] 2,500 (2002 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District. Alternate names: Butelkud-Guntabak, Garuh, Nobanob, Nobnob. Dialects: Ari (Ati, A'i). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Nomane

[nof] 4,645 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Simbu Province. Dialects: Nomane, Kiari. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu
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Nomu

[noh] 807 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, northern coast, Huon Peninsula. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Notsi

[ncf] 1,836 (2000 census). New Ireland Province, Central New Ireland District, east coast. Alternate names: Nochi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar
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Nuk

[noc] 1,009 (1980 census). Morobe Province, 8 villages in rugged terrain northeast of Boana on the south side of Saruwaged Range. Dialects: North Nuk, South Nuk. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Nukna

[klt] 850 (2003 SIL). Morobe Province, lower Timbe River valley. Alternate names: Komutu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa
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Nukumanu

[nuq] 700 (2003 SIL). Bougainville Province, Atolls District, Nukumanu Atoll. Alternate names: Tasman. Dialects: Tryon says it is distinct from Takuu (Nukuria) in Papua New Guinea and Luangiua (Ontong Java) in Solomon Islands. Speakers have contact with Luangiua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean
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Nukuria

[nur] 550 (2003 SIL). Bougainville Province, Atolls District, northeast of Bougainville Island, Nukuria Atoll. Alternate names: Nuguria, Nahoa, Fead. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean
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Numanggang

[nop] 2,262 (2000 census). Few monolinguals. Morobe Province, Lae District, north Nadzab. 10 villages. A few also in Lae, Mt. Hagen, and Rabaul. Alternate names: Manggang, Numangang, Numangan, Boana, Kai, Ngain, Sugu. Dialects: East Numanggang, West Numanggang. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Numbami

[sij] 270 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Lae District, one village on the coast. Alternate names: Siboma, Sipoma. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Numbami
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Nyindrou

[lid] 4,200 (1998 SIL). Few monolinguals. Manus Province, Manus Island. 10 villages around the west coast of Manus. Alternate names: Lindrou, Lindau, Salien, Nyada. Dialects: Babon. The Babon dialect is in 3 southern villages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West
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Odiai

[bhf] 244 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, north of Upper Sepik River, west of Namia. 3 villages. Yare is north and east, Abau is south and west, Biaka is northwest. Alternate names: Busa, Busan, Uriai. Classification: Language Isolate
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Odoodee

[kkc] 486 (2002 SIL). Western Province from south bank of middle Rentoul River past the middle Tomu River to Wawoi Falls. Villages of Tulusi (Hesif), Hasalibi, Kalamo (Wawoi Falls). Alternate names: Kalamo, Nomad, Tomu, Tomu River, Ododei. Dialects: Closest to Samo-Kubo and Konai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland
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Ogea

[eri] 2,209 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay. Alternate names: Erima, Nuru. Dialects: Related to Uya, Duduela, Kwato, Rerau, Jilim, Yangulam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru
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Oksapmin

[opm] 8,000 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District, bordering on the southwest of the Sepik Hill languages. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language. Several dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Oksapmin
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Olo

[ong] 13,667 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Lumi District. 55 villages. Alternate names: Orlei. Dialects: Payi (Pay, North Olo), Wapi (Wape, South Olo). Related to Yis, Yau, Ningil, Valman. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Omati

[mgx] 800 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, villages on Omati River: Gihiteri, Iba, Gibidai, Kiberi, Kamairo. Alternate names: Mini. Dialects: Lexical similarity 53% with Ikobi-Mena. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Turama-Omatian
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Ömie

[aom] 800 (1993 SIL). 400 monolinguals. Oro Province, Kokoda, Upper Kumusi, and Afore districts, northwest of Managalasi, Mamama River, and Upper Kumusi Valley. Alternate names: Aomie, Upper Managalasi. Dialects: Asapa, Zuwadza, Gora-Bomahouji. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Baraic
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One, Inebu

[oin] 1,300 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 1,300. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Inebu, Kalema, Windiple, Alkula villages. Alternate names: Oni, Inebu, Onele, Aunalei. Dialects: Close to Kabore One, Northern One, Southern One, Kwamtim One, Molmo One. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One
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One, Kabore

[onk] 300 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 300. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Abore, Sapin, Kara, Wamtip villages, Kabore Station. Alternate names: Oni, Kabore, Onele, Aunalei. Dialects: Close to Inebu One, Northern One, Southern One, Kwamtim One, Molmo One. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One
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One, Kwamtim

[okk] 150 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 150. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Kuamtim village. Alternate names: Oni, Kuamtim, Kwamtim, Aunalei. Dialects: Close to Kabore One, Inebu One, Northern One, Kwamtim One, Molmo One. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One
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One, Molmo

[aun] 500 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 500 (2000). Sandaun Province. Between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, West Waipei Division, Molmo, Wisoli, Anononti, Laurela, Pusa villages. Alternate names: Aunalei, Onele, Oni, Molmo. Dialects: North Aunalei, Central Aunalei, South Aunalei. Close to One Kabore, One Inebu, One Northern, One Southern, One Kwamtim. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One
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One, Northern

[onr] 2,000 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 2,000. Sandaun Province. Between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, Romei, Parara, Wolwale, Koiniri, Karantu villages. Alternate names: Onele, Oni, Aunalei. Dialects: Close to Kabore One, Inebu One, Southern One, Kwamtim One, Molmo One. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One
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One, Southern

[osu] 200 (2000 Crowther). Ethnic population: 200. Sandaun Province, Lumi District, West Waipei Division, between East Bewani and West Torricelli ranges, Romei, Parara, Wolwale, Koiniri, Karantu villages. Alternate names: Onele, Oni, Aunalei. Dialects: Close to Kabore One, Inebu One, Northern One, Kwamtim One, Molmo One. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei, One
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Onjob

[onj] 150 (2000 Wurm). Oro Province, Koreat and Naukwate villages. Alternate names: Onjab. Dialects: Lexical similarity 30% with Maiwa (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan
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Ono

[ons] 5,500 (1993 SIL). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District. Dialects: Ziwe, Amugen. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Onobasulu

[onn] 700 (2000 SIL). 50% are monolingual. Southern Highlands Province midway between Mt. Sisa and Mt. Bosavi. Alternate names: Onabasulu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi
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Ontenu

[ont] 3,000 (1996 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Alternate names: Ontena. Dialects: Related to Gadsup. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa
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Opao

[opo] 1,116 (1973 H. A. Brown). Gulf Province, near Orokolo and Keuru. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Western
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Orokaiva

[ork] 33,300 (1989 SIL). 20% monolingual. Population includes 4,300 Hunjara (1973 SIL), 2,000 Aeka (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Oro Province, Popondetta District between the Hunjara, Notu, Binandere and Managalasi. 200 villages. Some in Port Moresby, Wewak, Madang, and Lae. Alternate names: Orakaiva, Ke, Kaiva. Dialects: Kokoda, Hunjara, Ajeka, Etija (Sose, Sohe), Ehija (Ihane, Ifane), Harava, Aeka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Orokolo

[oro] 13,000 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, from mouth of Purari River east to Bairu River. Kerema is a main town. Alternate names: West Elema, Kairu-Kaura, Haira, Kaipi, Vailala, Bailala, Muru, Muro. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Western
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Oune

[oue] 1,900 (1990 SIL). Bougainville Province, Kieta District, central mountains and southeast coast. Alternate names: Ounge, Dapera. Dialects: Most dialects are not functionally intelligible with Nasioi. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi
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Owenia

[wsr] 349 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Eastern Highlands Province, Obura District. Alternate names: Owena, Owenda, Waijara, Waisara. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Owenia
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Owiniga

[owi] 330 (1998 NTM). East Sepik Province, southeast of Nimo language. Villages: Yei, Amu, Inagri, Samo. Alternate names: Samo, Bero, Taina. Classification: Left May
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Oya'oya

[oyy] 367 (1990 census). Milne Bay Province, Samarai-Murua District, Bwanabwana Local Government Area, southeast tip of the Papuan mainland facing China Strait. Alternate names: Kuiaro, Simagahi, Daiomuni, Loani. Dialects: Dialect cluster. Lexical similarity 61% with Wagawaga, 46% with Saliba, 31% with Tawala, 48% with Buhutu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic
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Pagi

[pgi] 2,136 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, Bewani Subdistrict, 5 villages, east and southeast of the Kilmeri. Alternate names: Pagei, Bembi. Dialects: Western Pagi (Bewani), Eastern Pagi (Imbinis). Related to Kilmeri and Ningera. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani
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Pahi

[lgt] 845 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, extending north in Maimai Namblo Division. Alternate names: Lugitama, Wansum, Riahoma. Dialects: Related to Pasi, Kalou, Mehek, Yessan-Mayo. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama
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Pak-Tong

[pkg] 970 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Pak and Tong islands. Alternate names: Tong-Pak. Dialects: Pak, Tong. 2 nearly identical dialects; Pak is larger. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Pak-Tong
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Pal

[abw] 1,159 (2000 census). Madang Province. Alternate names: Abasakur. Dialects: Related to Kobol. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Omosan
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Pamosu

[hih] 1,503 (2000 SIL). Madang Province, north central, Adelbert Range. Alternate names: Hinihon. Dialects: Related to Kowaki (nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran
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Panim

[pnr] 420 (2003 SIL). Madang Province just west of Madang city. Dialects: Related to Gumalu, Sihan, Isebe, Bau, Amele. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum
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Papapana

[ppn] 120 (2000 Wurm). Bougainville Province. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Papapana
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Papi

[ppe] 70 (2000 Wurm). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik Region, one village on the Frieda River. Alternate names: Paupe. Dialects: Lexical similarity 29% with Suarmin, closest. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Papi
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Papitalai

[pat] 520 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Naringel and Papitalai, Los Negros Island. Dialects: 3 dialects. Close to Koro. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Parawen

[prw] 429 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Alternate names: Para. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan
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Pare

[ppt] 2,000 (1990 UBS). Western Province. Alternate names: Pa, Akium-Pare. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awin-Pare
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Pasi

[psq] 356 (2000 census). Southeast corner of Sandaun Province, Wan Wan Division, 3 villages. Alternate names: Besi. Dialects: Close to Ayi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama
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Patep

[ptp] 1,700 (2003 SIL). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Alternate names: Ptep. Dialects: Dengalu. In the Mumeng dialect chain. Some intelligibility of Gorakor and Zenag. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng
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Patpatar

[gfk] 7,000 (1998 SIL). New Ireland Province, Namatanai District, south central. Alternate names: Gelik, Patpari. Dialects: Pala, Sokirik, Patpatar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai
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Pawaia

[pwa] 4,000 (1991 SIL). Simbu Province, Karimui District, and Gulf Province, Purari River near Oroi. Some also in Eastern Highlands Province. Alternate names: Pavaia, Sira, Aurama, Tudahwe, Yasa. Dialects: Aurama (Turoha, Uri), Hauruha. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Teberan-Pawaian, Pawaian
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Paynamar

[pmr] 150 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Paynamar
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Pei

[ppq] 208 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik Region, Hauna and Walio (Leonhard Schultze) River. Alternate names: Pai. Dialects: Close to Walio. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Walio
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Pele-Ata

[ata] 1,900 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, Nakanai District, inland from Bongula Bay. Alternate names: Wasi, Uase, Uasi, Uasilau, Peleata. Dialects: Pele, Ata. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Wasi
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Penchal

[pek] 550 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Rambutyo Island. Dialects: 3 nearly identical dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands
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Petats

[pex] 2,000 (1975 SIL). Bougainville Province, Buka Passage District, Petats, Pororan, and Hitau islands off the west coast of Buka Island. Dialects: Hitau-Pororan, Matsungan, Sumoun. Sumoun may be a dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka
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Piame

[pin] 100 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik Region, headwaters of the Niksek (April) and Walio (Leonhard Schultz) rivers. Alternate names: Biami. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio
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Pinai-Hagahai

[pnn] 600 (1997 SIL). Border area of Enga, Madang, Western Highlands, and East Sepik provinces. Alternate names: Pinaye, Pinai, Hagahai, Wapi, Aramo, Miamia. Dialects: Luya-Ginam-Mamusi, Pinai. The dialects have 78% lexical similarity with each other. They have 33% with Haruai, 19% with Kobon, 8% with Enga. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, East New Guinea Highlands, Piawi
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Piu

[pix] 100 (2000 Wurm). Morobe Province, upper Watut River, one village. Alternate names: Sanbiau, Lanzog, Kuruko. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang
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Ponam

[ncc] 420 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Ponam Island. Dialects: Close to Andra-Hus. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Pouye

[bye] 960 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Bouye. Dialects: Related to Awtuw, Karawa. Lexical similarity 67% with Karawa. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Ram
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Puari

[pux] 35 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, coast around Puari. Dialects: Related to Rawo, Krisa, Warapu. Classification: Sko, Krisa Nearly extinct.
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Pulabu

[pup] 116 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Siroi, Arawum, Kolom, Lemio. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau
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Purari

[iar] 7,000 (1991 UBS). Gulf Province, between Kapaina Inlet and Orokolo language, Purari River. Alternate names: Koriki, Evorra, Namau, Iai, Maipua. Dialects: Iai (Namau). Apparently unrelated to other languages of Gulf Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Purari
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Pyu

[pby] 100 (1978 SIL). Village of Biake No. 2 on the October River just east of Papua, Indonesia border. Not in Papua, Indonesia. Classification: Kwomtari-Baibai, Pyu
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Qaqet

[byx] 6,350 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Maqaqet, Kakat, Makakat, Baining. Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil
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Ramoaaina

[rai] 10,266 (2000 census). East New Britain Province, Kokopo District, Duke of York Islands. Alternate names: Duke of York, Ramuaina. Dialects: Makada, Molot (Main Island), Aalawa (Aalawaa, Alawa, Mioko, Ulu, South Islands). Makada dialect is very different. Possibly not intelligible to speakers of other dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai
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Ramopa

[kjx] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Bougainville Province, northwest Bougainville Island, south of Rapoisi. Alternate names: Keriaka, Kereaka. Dialects: Lexical similarity 19% with Rapoisi. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, West, Keriaka
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Rao

[rao] 6,000 (1992 UBS). Madang Province, Keram River area, lower Ramu Valley, 80 miles west of Madang city. Alternate names: Annaberg, Rao Breri. Dialects: Li'o, Ndramini'o. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Annaberg, Rao
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Rapoisi

[kyx] 3,500 (1998 SIL). Bougainville Province, northwest Bougainville Island, Kunua District. Most villages are inland. Alternate names: Kunua, Konua. Dialects: Related to Eivo, Kereaka, Rotokas. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, West
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Rapting

[rpt] 332 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Murupi, Wamas, Samosa, Mosimo, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Rawa

[rwo] 11,500 (1998 SIL). Population includes 7,000 Rawa and 4,500 Karo. Madang Province, Upper Ramu District (Rawa dialect), Rai Coast District (Karo dialect). The two dialects are on opposite sides of the Finisterre Range. Alternate names: Raua, Erawa, Erewa. Dialects: Rawa, Karo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot
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Rawo

[rwa] 640 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province coast around Rawo and Leitre. Dialects: Related to Krisa, Puari, Warapu. Classification: Sko, Krisa
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Rempi

[rmp] 1,594 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Rempin, A'e, Erempi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Rerau

[rea] 588 (2000 census). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kwato, Ogea, Uya, Duduela, Jilim, Yangulam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru
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Romkun

[rmk] 632 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Romkuin. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan
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Ronji

[roe] 449 (2003 SIL). 2 villages, one each in Madang and Morobe provinces, north coast of Huon Peninsula, 50 km northwest of Wasu, 30 km north-northwest of Sapmanga, about 45 km southeast of Saidor. Alternate names: Roinji, Gali. Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with Mato, 46% with Karnai, 45% with Malasanga, 44% with Arop-Lukep, 33% with Sio, 28% with Tuam-Mutu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya
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Rotokas

[roo] 4,320 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Bougainville Province, Central Bougainville District, central mountains. 28 villages. Dialects: Pipipaia, Aita, Atsilima. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, West, Rotokas
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Rumu

[klq] 1,000 (1985 UBS). Gulf Province, Kikori District, north of Kikori on the Kikori, Sirebi, and Tiviri rivers. Alternate names: Kairi, Rumuwa, Dumu, Tumu, Kibiri, Kai-Iri. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kairi
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Saep

[spd] 550 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Gowar River area, Rai coast, 75 miles east of Madang. Dialects: Related to Dumun. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon
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Safeyoka

[apz] 2,388 (1980 census). Morobe Province, Kaiapit, Lae-Wamba, and Menyamya districts. Alternate names: Ampale, Ampele, Ambari, Ampeeli-Wojokeso. Dialects: Aiewomba, Wajakes (Wocokeso). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper
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Sakam

[skm] 510 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa
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Saliba

[sbe] 2,300 (2000 Oetzel). Sariba and Rogeia islands, and parts of the mainland across from Rogeia Island, China Strait, Milne Bay Province. Dialects: Saliba, Logeya. Distinct from Suau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic
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Salt-Yui

[sll] 6,500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Simbu Province, Gumine District. 10 villages. Alternate names: Salt, Salt-Iui, Yui, Iui. Dialects: Close to Nondiri. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu
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Sam

[snx] 779 (2000 census). Madang Province, just inland and south of Bongu, Songum, Buan, and Wongbe villages. Alternate names: Songum. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim
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Samberigi

[ssx] 3,125 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Highlands Province, Lake Kutubu District, east of Erave. Alternate names: Sau, Sanaberigi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa
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Samo

[smq] 900 (2001 SIL). Western Province, Lake Murray District, southern Upper Strickland Census District, east of the Strickland River, north of Nomad. Alternate names: Daba, Nomad, Supei. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland
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Samosa

[swm] 90 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Murupi, Wamas, Rapting, Mosimo, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Saniyo-Hiyewe

[sny] 644 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, foothills of the Wogamus River basin. Saniyo dialect: Pukapuki, Sio, Hanasi, Salunapi, Malapute'e villages; Hiyowe dialect: Maposi village. Dialects: Saniyo (Sanio), Hiyowe (Hiowe). Related to Niksek ("Paka"). Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio
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Saposa

[sps] 1,400 (1998 SIL). Bougainville Province, Buka District, chain of islands south of Buka Island off northwest coast of Bougainville. Dialects: Taiof, Saposa (Fa Saposa). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz
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Saruga

[sra] 129 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Sauk

[skc] 605 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Sausi

[ssj] 1,452 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Uya. Dialects: Related to Sinsauru, Asas, Kesawai, Dumpu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia
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Seimat

[ssg] 1,000 (1992 SIL). Western Manus Province, on the Ninigo Islands and Anchorite Islands. Alternate names: Ninigo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western
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Selepet

[spl] 7,000 (1988 SIL). Morobe Province, Kabwum District, valleys of the Pumune and Kiari rivers. Alternate names: Selepe. Dialects: North Selepet, South Selepet. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Sene

[sej] 10 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern Nearly extinct.
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Sengo

[spk] 522 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sengo village, west-northwest of Pagwi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Sengseng

[ssz] 1,750 (2003 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest interior. Alternate names: Asengseng. Dialects: Wurm and Hattori treat it as a dialect of Kaulong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua
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Sepa

[spe] 697 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, coast south of Manam Island around Bogia. Dialects: Related to Wogeo, Biem, Manam, Medebur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam
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Sepen

[spm] 650 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Misegian
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Sera

[sry] 432 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, around Serai, one village. Alternate names: Ssia, Serra. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau
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Seta

[stf] 155 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei
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Setaman

[stm] 200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain
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Seti

[sbi] 164 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Classification: Torricelli, West Wapei
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Sewa Bay

[sew] 1,516 (1972 census). 20% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, center of Normanby Island around Sewa Bay. Alternate names: Duau Pwata. Dialects: Miadeba, Bwakera, Maiabare, Darubia, Sewataitai, Sibonai, Central Sewa Bay. The dialects are very diverse. Lexical similarity 45% with Dobu (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau
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Sialum

[slw] 642 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Siane

[snp] 28,978 (2000 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Watabung and Unggai census divisions (16,000), Goroka District. Simbu Province, Nambaiyufa Census Division (11,000). Alternate names: Siani. Dialects: Kolepa, Yamofowe, Komongu, Komoigaleka, Kemanimowe, Ona, Keto, Laiya, Fowe, Olumba, Lambau, Alango, Yandime, Wando. Separate literature in Komongu and Lambau dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Siane
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Siar-Lak

[sjr] 2,076 (2000 census). Southern New Ireland Province, Namatanai District. Alternate names: Siar, Lambom, Lamassa, Lak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai
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Sibe

[nco] 5,000 (1975 SIL). Bougainville Province, Buin District. Alternate names: Sibbe, Sibe-Nagovisi, Nagovisi. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi
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Sihan

[snr] 568 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Gumalu, Amele, Isebe, Bau, Panim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum
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Sileibi

[sbq] 259 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Katiati. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Sikan
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Siliput

[mkc] 515 (2003 SIL). Population includes 242 in Makru-Klaplei plus 21 elsewhere. Sandaun Province, Seleput village, Makru-Klaplei Division, Nuku District, north of Mehek. Alternate names: Mai, Maimai, Sokorok. Dialects: Lexical similarity 30% with Yahang. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper
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Silopi

[xsp] 185 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Murupi, Wamas, Rapting, Mosimo, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Samosa, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Simbali

[smg] 387 (2004 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Asimbali. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil
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Simbari

[smb] 3,036 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Marawaka District. Alternate names: Chimbari. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper
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Simeku

[smz] 1,898 (1980 SIL). Population includes 1,183 Koopei and 715 Mainoki. Bougainville Province, Kieta District, central mountains. Mainoki is on the west slope and Koopei on the east slope. Dialects: Mainoki (Mainoke), Koopei (Kopei). Not functionally intelligible with Nasioi. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi
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Sinagen

[siu] 328 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Galu, Metru. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Sinasina

[sst] 50,079 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Simbu Province. Dialects: Tabare, Guna. Close to Dom and Golin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu
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Sinaugoro

[snc] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Central Province, Rigo District, south of Kwikila. Alternate names: Sinagoro. Dialects: Ikolu, Balawaia, Saroa, Babagarupu, Kwaibida, Taboro, Kwaibo, Alepa, Omene, Tubulamo, Ikega, Boku, Buaga, Wiga, Vora, Kubuli, Oruone. Boku dialect may be most central. Lexical similarity 70% to 75% with Kalo (closest), 65% to 70% with Hula. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara
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Sinsauru

[snz] 505 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, near Dumpu. Alternate names: Kow. Dialects: Saipa. Related to Asas, Sausi, Kesawai, Dumpu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia
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Sio

[xsi] 3,500 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Wasu District, mainland near Sio Island. Alternate names: Sigawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Sio
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Siroi

[ssd] 1,309 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District. Kumisanger is one village; not a separate language. 5 villages. Alternate names: Suroi. Dialects: Related to Arawum, Pulabu, Kolom, Lemio. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau
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Sissano

[sso] 300 (2000 Wurm). Ethnic population: 4,776 (1990 census). Sandaun Province, Aitape District, around Sissano. Alternate names: Sisano, Sinano, Sinama. Dialects: Related to Arop-Sissano, Malol, Sera, Tumleo, Yakamul, Suain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau
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Siwai

[siw] 6,600. Population includes 600 in Baitsi. Bougainville Province, southeastern. Alternate names: Motuna. Dialects: Baitsi (Sigisigero). Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Buin
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Solong

[aaw] 2,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West New Britain Province, southwestern coast. Alternate names: Arove, Arawe, Pililo. Dialects: Arawe. Dialect cluster. Understood by all along the coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe
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Solos

[sol] 3,200 (1977 Lincoln). Bougainville Province, central and southwest Buka Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Solos
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Som

[smc] 80 (2000 Wurm). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa
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Sonia

[siq] 300 (1988 Shaw). Western Province and Southern Highlands Province, 10 to 20 miles west and southwest of Bosavi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi
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Sop

[urw] 2,250 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Usino-Bundi District, Usino Subdistrict, northeast of the Ramu Valley. Alternate names: Kari, Usino. Dialects: Related to Sumau, Urigina, Danaru. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka
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Sori-Harengan

[sbh] 570 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Sori is on the northwest coast of Manus Island and on the Sori and Harengan islands off the coast. Dialects: Sori, Harengan. 2 nearly identical dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West
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Sowanda

[sow] 1,000 in Papua New Guinea (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,212. Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Also spoken in Indonesia (Papua). Alternate names: Waina, Wina, Wanya, Wanja. Dialects: Punda-Umeda (Umada), Waina. May be 2 languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris
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Suarmin

[seo] 140 (2000 Wurm). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District, a few hamlets on the Kenu River, a tributary of the Om River. Near Duranmin airstrip. Alternate names: Duranmin, Akiapmin. Dialects: Lexical similarity 29% with Papi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Papi
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Suau

[swp] 6,795 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). 10% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, southeastern extremity of the Papua mainland. Dialects: Daui (Fife Bay), Sinaki (Gaidasu, Gadaisu), Leileiafa, Bona Bona, Dahuni, Suau, Bonarua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic
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Sudest

[tgo] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Yama-Yele District, Tagula Island, west of Rossel Island, at the end of the Calvados chain. Alternate names: Tagula, Sud-Est, Vanga, Vanatina. Dialects: Rambuso (Rewa), Eastern Point, Pamela, Griffin Point (Nine Hills, Nanhil), Jelewaga. Lexical similarity 44% with Nimowa (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest
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Suena

[sue] 3,000 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, north of Yekora. Alternate names: Yema, Yarawe, Yarawi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Suganga

[sug] 700 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Alternate names: Wagarabai, North Mianmin. Dialects: Close to Mianmin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain
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Suki

[sui] 3,512 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Lake Suki. Alternate names: Wiram. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Gogodala-Suki, Suki
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Sulka

[sua] 2,500 (1991 SIL). East New Britain Province, East Pomio District, Wide Bay coast. Dialects: A dialect chain. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Sulka
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Sumariup

[siv] 80 (1993 SIL). East Sepik Province, Upper Wagupmeri River. 1 village. Alternate names: Sogoba, Latoma. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo
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Sumau

[six] 2,575 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, low mountain ranges between the Ramu and Naru rivers. Alternate names: Kari, Garia, Sumau-Garia. Dialects: Possibly 2 dialects. Related to Sop, Urigina, Danaru. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka
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Sursurunga

[sgz] 3,000 (1991 SIL). South central New Ireland Province, Namatanai District. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai
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Susuami

[ssu] 10 (2000 Wurm). Morobe Province, Upper Watut Valley outside Bulolo. Dialects: Most closely related to Kamasa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan Nearly extinct.
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Tabo

[knv] 3,000 (2002 SIL). Western Province, lower Aramia River villages of Waya, Saiwase, Galu, Alagi; Bamu River village of Alikinapi; lower Fly River villages of Kenedibi, Urio, and Wagumi-Sarau; Segero Creek village of Segero. Alternate names: Waya. Dialects: Aramia River, Fly River. The dialects have 60% lexical similarity, but nearly identical syntax and grammar. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Waia
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Tabriak

[tzx] 2,082 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, near Chambri, lower Karawari River. 9 villages. Alternate names: Karawari. Dialects: Closest to Kopar (Watam). Distinct from the Karawari dialect of Alamblak. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Pondo
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Tai

[taw] 900 (1990 UBS). Madang Province, southwest, Dundrom village. Alternate names: Tay. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kalam, Unclassified
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Taiap

[gpn] 80 (2000 S. Wurm). East Sepik Province, Gapun village. Alternate names: Gapun. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Gapun
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Tainae

[ago] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Gulf Province, Ivori-Swanson District. The main villages are Pio, Famba, and Paiguna. Alternate names: Ivori. Dialects: Close to Angoya. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper
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Tairora, North

[tbg] 6,000 (2003 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Obura districts, south of Kainantu. Alternate names: Tairora. Dialects: Aantantara (Andandara), Arau-Varosia (Arau-Barosia), Arokaara (Arokara), Saiqora (Sai'ora), Tairora. Most closely related to South Tairora and Binumarien. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Tairora
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Tairora, South

[omw] 7,000 (2003 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Obura districts, south of Kainantu. Alternate names: Omwunra-Toqura. Dialects: Aatasaara (Atakara), Haaviqinra-Oraura (Habina-Oraura), Omwunra-Toqura (Obura-To'okena), Vaira-Ntosara (Baira), Veqaura (Meauna), Vinaata-Konkompira (Pinata-Konkombira). Most closely related to North Tairora and Waffa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Tairora
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Tairuma

[uar] 4,000 (1993 SIL). Gulf Province, Uaripi and several other villages near Toaripi. Alternate names: Uaripi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Eastern
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Takia

[tbc] 19,619 (2003 SIL). Southern half of Karkar Island, Bagabag Island, and coastal villages Megiar and Serang, Madang Province, Madang District. Dialects: Megiar, Serang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern
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Takuu

[nho] 1,750 (2003 SIL). Bougainville Province, Atolls District, northeast of Bougainville, Takuu Atoll, Mortlock village. Alternate names: Tauu, Taku, Tau, Mortlock. Dialects: Distinct from Nukumanu and Nukuria in Papua New Guinea and Ontong Java and Sikaiana in Solomon Islands, although very closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean
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Tami

[tmy] 1,500 (2003 SIL). Population includes 681 Wanam dialect, 567 Taemi dialect. Morobe Province, Tami Islands and mainland villages south of Finschhafen. Dialects: Wanam, Taemi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Tami
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Tangga

[tgg] 5,800 (1990 SIL). New Ireland Province, Tanga Islands, Anir (Feni) Island, three villages on New Ireland. Alternate names: Tanga. Dialects: Tanga, Anir (Feni), Maket. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai
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Tanggu

[tgu] 3,000 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Alternate names: Tanggum, Tangu. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Ataitan
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Tanguat

[tbs] 745 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Ataitan
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Tauade

[ttd] 11,000 (1991 SIL). Central Province, Goilala District toward the northeast. Alternate names: Tauata. Dialects: Lexical similarity 44% with Kunimaipa (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan
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Taulil

[tuh] 800 (2000 Wurm). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Dialects: Taulil, Butam. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil
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Taupota

[tpa] 1,276 (2001 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Maramatana Local Government Area, on East Cape facing Goodenough Bay from Wamawamana to Garuwahi including Taupota village. Dialects: Probably a dialect chain with Wa'ema to the south and Wedau to the west. Lexical similarity 81% with Topura village of Wedau, 69% with central Wedau, 76% with Wa'ema, 56% with Tawala, 53% with Maiwala. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota
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Tauya

[tya] 347 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Alternate names: Inafosa. Dialects: Related to Biyom, Isabi, Faita. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Brahman
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Tawala

[tbo] 20,000 (2000 census). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, from Awaiama to East Cape, north and south shores of Milne Bay, Sideia and Basilaki islands. Alternate names: Tawara, Tavara. Dialects: Awayama (Awaiama, Awalama), Huhuna, Kehelala (Keherara, East Cape), Lelehudi, Diwinai (Divinai), Labe (Rabe), Yaleba (Wagawaga, Gwawili, Gwavili, Ealeba), Bohilai (Bohira'i, Basilaki), Sideya (Sideia). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota
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Telefol

[tlf] 5,400 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Alternate names: Telefomin, Telefolmin, Teleefool. Dialects: Telefol, Feramin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain
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Tenis

[tns] 30 (2000 Wurm). New Ireland Province, Tench Island. Alternate names: Tench. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias Nearly extinct.
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Teop

[tio] 5,000 (1991 SIL). Bougainville Province, Tinputz District, northeastern. Dialects: Wainanana, Losiara (Raosiara), Taunita, Melilup, Petspets. Raosiara may be a dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz
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Terebu

[trb] 128 (1990). East Sepik Province, coast southeast of Taul, village of Turubu. Alternate names: Terepu, Turupu, Turubu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru
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Terei

[buo] 26,500 (2003 SIL). Southern Bougainville Province, Buin District. Alternate names: Buin, Telei, Rugara. Dialects: Closest to Uisai. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Buin
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Tiang

[tbj] 791 (1972 Beaumont). New Ireland Province, eastern part of Djaul Island. Alternate names: Djaul. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik
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Tifal

[tif] 3,600 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Alternate names: Tifalmin. Dialects: Tifal, Asbalmin. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain
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Tigak

[tgc] 6,000 (1991 SIL). Northern New Ireland Province, Kavieng District, and western Djaul Island. Alternate names: Omo. Dialects: Island Tigak, West Tigak, Central Tigak, South Tigak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik
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Timbe

[tim] 11,000 (1991 SIL). 60% are monolingual (women and older men). Morobe Province, Kabwum District, Timbe River valley and tributaries. Dialects: Central Timbe, North Timbe, South Timbe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Tinputz

[tpz] 3,900 (1991 SIL). Bougainville Province, Teop-Tinputz District. Alternate names: Vasuii, Wasoi, Timputs, Vasui. Dialects: Vasui, Vavoehpoa', Vaene', Vado-Vaene', Vapopeo', Vapopeo'-Rausaura, Vado. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz
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Titan

[ttv] 3,850 (1992 SIL). Manus Province on the following islands - Manus (southeast coast), Tawi, Wal, M'buke, Johnson, Baluan, Tilianu, Bundro, Rambutyo. Alternate names: Manus, Moanus, Tito, M'bunai. Dialects: 2 dialects, 'r' speakers on southeast Manus Island, 'l' speakers on outlying islands. Intelligibility between speakers of 'r' and 'l' dialects is 100%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East
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Toaripi

[tqo] 23,000 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, Cape Possession to Cape Cupola. Kerema is a main town. Alternate names: Motumotu, East Elema. Dialects: Kaipi (Melaripi), Toaripi (Moripi-Iokea, Moveave), Sepoe. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Eastern
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Tobo

[tbv] 2,230 (1980 census). Morobe Province, upper Kuat River valley, south of Cromwell Range. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western
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Tok Pisin

[tpi] 121,000 (2003 SIL). 50,000 monolinguals. Mainly in the northern half of the country, and now well established in Port Moresby, and into other regions. Alternate names: Pisin, Pidgin, Neomelanesian, New Guinea Pidgin English, Melanesian English. Dialects: There are dialect differences between lowlands, highlands, and the islands. The highlands lexicon has more English influence (J. Holm). Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific
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Tokano

[zuh] 6,000 (1982 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Alternate names: Tokama, Gamuso, Zuhuzuho, Zuhozuho, Yufiyufa, Zaka. Dialects: Lower Asaro, Zuhuzuho. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gahuku-Benabena
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Tomoip

[tqp] 700 (1982 SIL). East New Britain Province, Wide Bay to Waterfall Bay and interior. Alternate names: Tumuip, Tumie, Tomoyp, Tomoive. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tomoip
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Torau

[ttu] 605 (1963 SIL). Bougainville Province, southeast coast, north of Kieta. Alternate names: Rorovana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava
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Torricelli

[tei] 517 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District and partially in Sandaun Province, west of Kombio, 5 villages. Alternate names: Lou, Anamagi. Dialects: West Torricelli, East Torricelli. 2 dialects. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio
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Toura

[don] 335 (2003 SIL). Central Province, around Galley Reach. Alternate names: Doura. Dialects: Lexical similarity 57% with Lala, 54% with Motu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear
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Tulu-Bohuai

[rak] 1,400 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Bohuai, Peli Island, Pelipowai. Alternate names: Pahavai, Pelipowai, Bohuai, Bowai, Pohuai, Bohuai-Tulu. Dialects: Keli, Bohuai, Tulu (Tulun, Tjudun). Close to Levei-Ndrehet. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West
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Tuma-Irumu

[iou] 1,500 (1998 SIL). Morobe Province, Kaiapit District, Wantoat Subdistrict. Alternate names: Upper Irumu, Tuma, Irumu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Wantoat
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Tumleo

[tmq] 793 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Tumleo Island, and coast around Aitape. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau
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Tungag

[lcm] 12,000 (1990 SIL). New Ireland Province, Lamet District, New Hanover Island, Tingwon and Umbukul Islands. Alternate names: Tungak, Lavongai, Lavangai, Dang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik
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Turaka

[trh] 25 (2000 Wurm). Milne Bay Province, 5 miles southwest of Radarada and Ruaba. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan Nearly extinct.
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Turumsa

[tqm] 5 (2002 SIL). Western Province, Middle Fly District, Makapa village. Dialects: Lexical similarity 19% with Turumsa, 15% with Doso. Classification: Unclassified Nearly extinct.
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Tuwari

[tww] 122 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik Region, upper Walio (Leonhard Schultze) River. A few also near Akiapmin south of the Central Range. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Walio
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Uare

[ksj] 1,300 (1996 SIL). Central Province, Rigo Inland District, on the coast south of Port Moresby, Kemp Welsh and Hunter rivers. Alternate names: Kwale, Kware. Dialects: Garihe (Garia), Uare (Kwale). Lexical similarity 65% to 74% with Humeme (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Kwalean
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Ubir

[ubr] 2,560 (2000 census). Oro Province, Tufi District, coast of Collingwood Bay on the Kwagila River. Alternate names: Ubiri, Kubiri. Dialects: Lexical similarity 27% with Miniafia (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are
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Ufim

[ufi] 550 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot
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Uisai

[uis] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Bougainville Province, southern, Buin District. Classification: East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Buin
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Ukuriguma

[ukg] 166 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Wanuma, Yaben, Yarawata, Parawen, Bilakura. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan
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Ulau-Suain

[svb] 2,797 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, coast around Ulau 1, Ulau 2, and Suain. Alternate names: Suain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau
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Umanakaina

[gdn] 2,400 (1987 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, on the coast of Goodenough Bay, inland between Mt. Gwoira and Mt. Simpson. Alternate names: Gwedena, Gweda, Gwede, Gvede, Umanikaina. Dialects: Upper Ugu River, East Umanakaina. At least two dialects. Lexical similarity 23% with Ginuman (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan
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Umbu-Ungu

[ubu] 34,154 (2000 census). Western Highlands Province, Tambul (No-Penge dialect) and Lower Kaugel (Kala dialect) districts, extending into Southern Highlands Province (Andelale dialect). Alternate names: Ubu Ugu, Kaugel, Kauil, Gawigl, Gawil, Kakoli. Dialects: Kala (Mendo-Kala), No-Penge, Andelale. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Hagen, Kaugel
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Umeda

[upi] 289 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanda District, south of Imonda. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani
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Uneapa

[bbn] 10,000 (1998 SIL). West New Britain Province, Talasea District, Unea (Bali) Island off the northwest coast. Alternate names: Bali. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu
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Unserdeutsch

[uln] 100 in Papua New Guinea. Population includes 15 in New Britain, a few in other parts of Papua New Guinea and the rest in southeastern Queensland, Australia (1981 C. Volker). East New Britain Province, Rabaul. Also spoken in Australia. Alternate names: Rabaul Creole German. Classification: Creole, German based Nearly extinct.
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Ura

[uro] 1,900 (1991 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. Alternate names: Uramät, Uramit, Uramet, Uramot, Auramot. Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil
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Urapmin

[urm] 366 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain
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Urat

[urt] 6,279 (2003 SIL). Population includes 2,476 in Wasep Ngau, 2,058 in Wusyep Yehre, 1,208 in Wasep Yam, and 547 in Wusyep Tep. East Sepik Province, Dreikikir District, southwest of Wom, south of Kombio. 20 major villages and several hamlets. Dialects: Wasep Nau (North Urat), Wusyep Yehre (Central Urat), Wasep Yam (South Urat), Wusyep Tep (East Urat). Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Urat
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Uri

[uvh] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Boana District. Alternate names: Urii, Uri Vehees, Erap. Dialects: East Urii, West Urii. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap
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Urigina

[urg] 1,404 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 30 miles downstream. Alternate names: Uriginau, Origanau. Dialects: Related to Sop, Danaru, Sumau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka
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Urim

[uri] 3,742 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik Subdistrict, extending into Sandaun Province, Nuku Subdistrict, southwest of Kombio. 16 villages. Alternate names: Kalp. Dialects: Kukwo, Yangkolen. Classification: Torricelli, Urim
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Urimo

[urx] 799 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Alternate names: Yaugiba. Dialects: Related to Elepi. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg
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Usan

[wnu] 1,400 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District. Alternate names: Wanuma. Dialects: Related to Yarawata, Bilakura, Ukuriguma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan
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Usarufa

[usa] 1,300 (1996 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Alternate names: Usurufa, Uturupa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa
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Utarmbung

[omo] 1,166 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Osum. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Osum
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Utu

[utu] 583 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Uya

[usu] 272 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Trans-Gogol District. Alternate names: Usu. Dialects: Related to Kwato, Ogea, Duduela, Rerau, Jilim, Yangulam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru
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Valman

[van] 1,740 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Koroko. Dialects: Related to Olo, Yau, Ningil, Yis. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Vanimo

[vam] 2,667 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District. 3 villages. Not in Papua, Indonesia. Alternate names: Manimo, Wanimo, Duso. Dialects: 2 dialects. Related to Wutung. Classification: Sko, Vanimo
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Vehes

[val] 70 (2000 Wurm). Morobe Province, one village near the coast between Salamaua and Lae. Alternate names: Buasi, Vehees. Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Buang (closest). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang
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Wab

[wab] 120 (2000 Wurm). Madang Province, north coast of Huon Peninsula. 2 villages next to Saidor: Wab and Saui. Alternate names: Som. Dialects: Related to Mindiri and Biliau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe
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Waboda

[kmx] 2,750 (2003 SIL). Western Province, Wabuda Island, and the north bank of the Fly River mouth. Meipani, Tirere, Maduduo, Sagero, Wapi, Gesoa, Dameratamu, and Kabaturi villages. Alternate names: Wabuda. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian
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Wadaginam

[wdg] 947 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Wadaginamb. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Wadaginam
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Wa'ema

[wag] 1,023 (2000 census). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Huhu Local Government Area, the area from Giligili Estates to Turnbull War Memorial, near the head of Milne Bay north to, but not crossing, the East Cape coastal range. Alternate names: Waiema. Dialects: Wa'ema seems to be in a dialect chain with Taupota. Tawala is not intelligible to Wa'ema speakers. Lexical similarity 76% with Taupota, 69% with Maiwala, 54% with Tawala. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota
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Waffa

[waj] 1,300 (1988 SIL). Morobe Province, Kaiapit District, headwaters of Waffa River, 3 major villages and 2 smaller ones. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Tairora
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Wagawaga

[wgw] 1,294 (1990 census). 10% monolingual. Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Huhu Local Government Area, south shore of Milne Bay. Alternate names: Baeaula, Gamadoudou, Gibara, Kilakilana. Dialects: Wagawaga (Baeaula), Gamadoudou. Lexical similarity 61% with Oya'oya, 31% with Tawala, 55% with Buhutu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic
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Wagi

[fad] 3,378 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, 7 miles northwest of Madang. 5 villages: Mis, Kamba, Foran, Kauris, and Silibob. Alternate names: Foran, Furan, Kamba, Mis-Kemba. Dialects: May be closest to Nobonob. Lexical similarity 30% with Ari dialect of Nobonob. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Wahgi

[wgi] 39,000 (1999 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Minj District, overlapping into Simbu Province, South of the Wahgi River. Alternate names: Mid Wahgi. Dialects: Kup-Minj (Kumai), Pukamigl-Andegabu, Kunjip, Kambia, Mid-Wahgi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Wahgi
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Wahgi, North

[whg] 47,000 (1999 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Minj District, overlapping into Simbu Province. North Wahgi is on the north side of the Wahgi River, and on both sides of the Sepik-Wahgi Divide. Dialects: Banz-Nondugl. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Wahgi
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Waima

[rro] 15,000 (2000 census). Central Province, Bereina District, near Kairuku, shores of Hall Sound, between Yule Island and mainland, 65 miles northwest of Port Moresby. Alternate names: Roro. Dialects: Waima, Paitana, Roro. Roro and Paitana populations are smaller and scattered. Lexical similarity 45% with Kuni (closest), 99% among all three dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear
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Walio

[wla] 227 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Lexical similarity 12% with Yabio. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Walio
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Wamas

[wmc] 218 (2000 WCD). Madang Province, 10 villages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Wampar

[lbq] 5,150 (1990). Morobe Province, lower Markham and Wamped rivers. Alternate names: Laewomba, Laewamba, Laiwomba. Dialects: Lexical similarity 50% with Adzera. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Wampar
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Wampur

[waz] 360 (1990). Morobe Province, Wanton River. Dialects: Closest to Mari. Lexical similarity 50% with Adzera. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain
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Wanambre

[wnb] 589 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Alternate names: Vanambere. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran
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Wanap

[wnp] 1,066 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, north of Mehek, northeast of Siliput. Alternate names: Kayik. Dialects: Related to Agi, Aru, Aruop, Bragat, Nabi. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei
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Wantoat

[wnc] 8,201 (1978 McElhanon). Population includes 393 Bam (1978 McElhanon) and 492 Yagawak (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Morobe Province, Kaiapit District, Wantoat, Leron, and Bam rivers. Dialects: Wapu (Leron), Central Wantoat, Bam, Yagawak (Kandomin). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Wantoat
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Wára

[tci] 696 (2002 SIL). Western Province, Morehead District, villages immediately west of Morehead. Alternate names: Rouku, Wärä, Yumbar, Upper Morehead, Kamindjo, Tjokwai, Tokwasa, Vara, Ara. Dialects: Wára, Kómnjo, Anta, Wèré. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda
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Warapu

[wra] 300 (2000 Wurm). Ethnic population: 1,602 including 442 nonresidents (1983 census). Sandaun Province, coast near Sera and Sissano, northwest peninsula of the Sissano lagoon, around Sumo and Ramu towns. Dialects: Related to Krisa, Rawo, Puari. Classification: Sko, Krisa
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Waris

[wrs] 2,500 in Papua New Guinea. Population total all countries: 4,000. Sandaun Province, Amanab District, around Wasengla. Also spoken in Indonesia (Papua). Alternate names: Walsa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris
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Waruna

[wrv] 600 (1991 SIL). Western Province, Aramia River area, Waruna village. Dialects: Lexical similarity 50% with Ari. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala
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Wasembo

[gsp] 586 (1980 census). Morobe Province, west of Ufim. Alternate names: Gusap, Yankowan, Biapim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Wasembo
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Waskia

[wsk] 15,938 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District, Karkar Island. Alternate names: Woskia, Vaskia. Dialects: Closest to Korak. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Kowan
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Watakataui

[wtk] 350 (1998). East Sepik Province, on a branch of the middle Korosameri River. 2 villages. Alternate names: Waxe. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo
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Watam

[wax] 590 (2003 SIL). Madang and East Sepik provinces, near the mouth of the Ramu River. Alternate names: Marangis. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien
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Watut, Middle

[mpl] 1,350 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, lower Watut Valley, 7 villages. Alternate names: Silisili, Maraliinan, Maralinan, Watut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut
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Watut, North

[una] 465 (1988 Holzknecht). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, Kaiapit area, Waffa Valley. Alternate names: Unank, Onank, Unangg, Watut. Dialects: Holzknecht says Unank combines with part of Silisili and part of Maraliinan to form one language, North Watut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut
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Watut, South

[mcy] 889 (1988 Holzknecht). Morobe Province, southern or lower Watut River. 5 villages. Dialects: Maralango (Maralangko), Dangal (Danggal). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut
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Wedau

[wed] 2,200 (2000 D. Tryon). 900 monolinguals. Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, Weraura Local Government Area, on the mainland from Kuvira Bay to Dogura along the north coast. Alternate names: Wedaun, Wedawan. Dialects: Topura, Yapoa, Lavora, Kwamana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota
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Weliki

[klh] 200 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, lower Timbe River valley. 2 villages. Alternate names: Weleki, Karangi. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa
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Were

[wei] 492 (2000 census). Western Province, Dewara (Weredai) village. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio
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Weri

[wer] 4,163 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Wau District, headwaters of Biaru, Waria, and Ono rivers. Alternate names: Weli, Wele. Dialects: Sim, Biaru-Waria, Ono. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan, Kunimaipa
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Wiaki

[wii] 766 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, north of Beli, Laeko-Libuat. Alternate names: Wiakei. Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Wiaki
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Wiarumus

[tua] 162 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Mandi village, on coast about 12 km southeast of Wewak. Alternate names: Imandi, Mandi. Classification: Torricelli, Marienberg
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Wipi

[gdr] 3,500 (1999 Shim). Western Province, eastern third of area between Fly Delta, estuary, and south coast. Alternate names: Oriomo, Jibu, Gidra. Dialects: Dorogori, Abam, Peawa, Ume, Kuru, Woigo, Wonie, Iamega, Gamaewe, Podari, Wipim, Kapal, Rual, Guiam, Yuta. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Eastern Trans-Fly
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Wiru

[wiu] 15,292 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu District. Alternate names: Witu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Wiru
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Wogamusin

[wog] 700 (1998 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District. 4 villages. Alternate names: Wongamusin. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Wogamusin
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Wogeo

[woc] 1,624 (2003 SIL). Vokeo and Koil islands, East Sepik Province. Alternate names: Uageo. Dialects: Related to Manam, Biem, Sepa, Medebur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam
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Wom

[wmo] 4,264 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, east of Wara Sikau, Maprik District. 12 villages, foothills of Torricelli Mountains, 22 km west northwest of Maprik in Dreikikir District, Maprik Province. Alternate names: Wam. Dialects: 2 slightly different dialects. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio
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Wutung

[wut] 903 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, coast bordering Papua, Indonesia, including Sangke village. Alternate names: Udung. Classification: Sko, Vanimo
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Wuvulu-Aua

[wuv] 1,000 (1982 SIL). Western Manus Province, Aua, Durour, Maty, and Wuvulu islands. Alternate names: Aua-Viwulu, Viwulu-Aua. Dialects: Aua, Wuvulu (Wuu). 2 nearly identical dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western
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Yabem

[jae] 2,084 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Huon Peninsula, coast near Finschhafen. Alternate names: Laulabu, Jabem, Jabim, Yabim. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North
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Yaben

[ybm] 702 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Usan, Yarawata, Bilakura, Parawen, Ukuriguma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan
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Yabong

[ybo] 370 (1970 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon
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Yagaria

[ygr] 21,116 (1982 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Dialects: Kami-Kulaka, Move, Ologuti, Dagenava, Kamate, Hira, Hua (Huva), Kotom. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria
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Yagomi

[ygm] 283 (2003 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, Yagomi village, on the coast southeast of Seure. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup
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Yagwoia

[ygw] 9,000 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Menyamya District, extending into Gulf Province; Eastern Highlands Province, one section west of the Tauri River, the other north of Menye. Alternate names: Kokwaiyakwa, Yeghuye. Dialects: Close to Chimbari, Hamtai, Barua, Menya. Closest, Menya. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper
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Yahang

[rhp] 1,429 (2003 SIL). Population includes 1,116 in area and 66 outside. Sandaun Province, west of Mehek. Alternate names: Ya'unk, Ruruhip, Ruruhi'ip. Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Heyo (Arinua). Classification: Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper
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Yakaikeke

[ykk] 100 (1998 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, Weraura Local Government Area, on Goodenough Bay between Wedau and Radava, Near Manubada at Diruna only. Dialects: Lexical similarity 65% with Wedau (closest), 58% with Kwamana, 48% with Ghayavi (at Radava). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota
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Yakamul

[ykm] 3,463 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province, coast between Paup and Yakamul, and Ali, Seleo, and Angel islands. Alternate names: Ali. Dialects: Ali, Yakamul. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau
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Yale

[nce] 600 (1991 SIL). 5% monolingual. Sandaun Province, Amanab District, west of Namia. Kwomtari is north, Abau is south, Busa is southwest, Biaka is west, Anggor and Amanab are northwest. 6 villages. Alternate names: Nagatman, Nagatiman, Yarë, Yade. Dialects: 2 very similar dialects. Classification: Language Isolate
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Yamap

[ymp] 1,581 (2000 census). Morobe Province, Francisco River area. Dialects: Close to Hote and Misim. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote
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Yambes

[ymb] 1,078 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, northwest of Wom, east and southeast of Kombio, 4 villages. Dialects: West Yambes, East Yambes. Classification: Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio
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Yangulam

[ynl] 405 (2000 census). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Kwato, Ogea, Uya, Duduela, Rerau, Jilim. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru
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Yapunda

[yev] 60 (2000 Wurm). Sandaun Province. Alternate names: Reiwo. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Yarawata

[yrw] 127 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Dialects: Related to Usan, Yaben, Bilakura, Parawen, Ukuriguma. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan
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Yareba

[yrb] 750 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Oro Province, Popondetta District. Alternate names: Middle Musa. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban
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Yau

[yuw] 1,700 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Kabwum District. Villages include Worin, Yawan, Kotet, Mitmit, Mup, Sindamon. Alternate names: Uruwa. Dialects: Northern Yau, Headwaters Yau. The dialects listed are also names of villages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa
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Yau

[yyu] 144 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. 1 village. Dialects: Related to Olo, Yis, Ningil, Valman. Lexical similarity 63% with Olo and Yis. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Yaul

[yla] 1,210 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province. Dialects: Related to Langam, Mongol. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Langam, Mongol-Langam
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Yaweyuha

[yby] 2,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Alternate names: Yabiyufa, Yawiyuha. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Siane
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Yawiyo

[ybx] 100 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Sandaun Province, 10 miles east of Duranmin. 3 villages. Alternate names: Yabio. Dialects: Lexical similarity 7% with Papi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Walio
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Yekora

[ykr] 1,000 (1995 SIL). Morobe Province, 2 villages near Morobe government station. Dialects: Close to Mawae. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Yele

[yle] 3,750 (1998 Rossel Health Centres). 400 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,750 (1998). Milne Bay Province, Misima District, Rossel Island at eastern end of Calvados chain, and 500 in Port Moresby and Alotau. Alternate names: Yelejong, Rossel, Yela, Yeletnye, Yelidnye. Dialects: Daminyu, Bou, Wulanga, Jinjo, Abaletti, Jaru. Lexical similarity 8% with Daga (closest). Classification: East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, Yele-Solomons, Yele
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Yelogu

[ylg] 162 (2003 SIL). East Sepik Province, one village in Ambunti District. Alternate names: Kaunga, Buiamanambu. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu
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Yerakai

[yra] 390 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, southeast near government station, 2 villages. Alternate names: Yerekai. Dialects: Lexical similarity 6% with Middle Sepik languages. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Yerakai
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Yessan-Mayo

[yss] 1,988 (2000 census). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sandaun Province, Wan Wan Division, south of Mehek. 10 villages. Alternate names: Mayo-Yesan, Maio-Yesan, Yasyin, Yesan. Dialects: Yawu (Yau, Yaw, Warasai), Mayo-Yessan. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama
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Yetfa

[yet] 200 in Papua New Guinea (1992 SIL). South of the Green River, and into Papua, Indonesia. Alternate names: Inisine, Biaksi, Biksi. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Biksi
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Yil

[yll] 2,472 (2000 census). Sandaun Province, northwest of Au. 16 villages. Dialects: Lexical similarity 23% with Au. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Yimas

[yee] 300 (2000 Wurm). East Sepik Province, near Chambri, Arafundi River, middle Karawari River. Dialects: Related to Karawari. Classification: Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Pondo
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Yis

[yis] 325 (2003 SIL). Sandaun Province. 5 villages. Dialects: Different dialects in each village. Related languages: Olo, Yau, Ningil, Valman. Classification: Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei
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Yoidik

[ydk] 766 (2003 SIL). Madang Province. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman
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Yonggom

[yon] 4,000 (1997 SIL). Western Province along the Fly and Tedi (Alice) rivers and towards Lake Murray. Alternate names: Yongom, Yongkom. Dialects: Lexical similarity 80% with North Muyu, 70% with South Muyu, 30% with Ninggerum. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland
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Yopno

[yut] 7,200 (2000 census). Madang Province and Morobe Province. Alternate names: Yupna. Dialects: Kewieng, Nokopo, Wandabong, Isan. Related to Ma, Gabutamon. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna
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Zenag

[zeg] 1,818 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Alternate names: Zenang. Dialects: Latep. In Mumeng dialect chain. Some intelligibility of Patep. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng
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Zia

[zia] 3,943 (1978 McElhanon). Population includes 3,000 Zia (1991 SIL), 943 Mawae. Morobe Province, Lae District near the mouth of the Waria River. Alternate names: Tsia, Lower Waria, Ziya. Dialects: Zia, Mawae. Lexical similarity 68% with Yekora (closest). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper
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Zimakani

[zik] 1,500 (1990 UBS). Western Province, south end of Lake Murray. Alternate names: Baegwa, Dea, Bagwa Zimakani. Dialects: Zimakani, Bagwa (Begua, Mbegu), Dea. Related to Kuni (Boazi). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Boazi
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Extinct languages

Aribwatsa

[laz] Extinct. Morobe Province, lower Wamped River. Alternate names: Lae, Lahe. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu
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Bina

[bmn] Extinct. Central Province, north of Baibara. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric
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Hermit

[llf] Extinct. Western Manus Province, Luf and Maron islands in Hermit Islands. Alternate names: Agomes, Luf, Maron. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West
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Kaniet

[ktk] Extinct. Manus Province, Anchorite and Kaniet Islands, western. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western
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Karami

[xar] Extinct. Gulf Province, on Western Province border, northeast of Tao-Suamoto. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai
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Mulaha

[mfw] Extinct. Central Province, just southeast of Gaile on the coast. Dialects: Mulaha, Iaibu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Kwalean
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Ouma

[oum] Extinct. Central Province, south coast around Labu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic
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Rema

[bow] Extinct. Western Province, Morehead District. Not in Papua, Indonesia. Alternate names: Bothar. Dialects: Related to Aramba, Kanum. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro rivers, Tonda
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Uruava

[urv] Extinct. Bougainville Province, southeastern coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava
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Yoba

[yob] Extinct. Central Province, north of Magori. Dialects: Related to Magori. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric
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