The population is 2,967 (July 2003 estimate), about 70 per cent of whom are of British descent, primarily as a result of Scottish and Welsh immigration to the islands.[58] The native-born inhabitants call themselves "Islanders"; "Kelpers", from the kelp which grows profusely around the islands, is no longer used in the Islands. Those people from the United Kingdom who have obtained Falkland Island status became what are known locally as 'belongers'.

A few Islanders are of French, Gibraltarian (such as the Pitaluga family), Portuguese and Scandinavian descent. Some are the descendants of whalers who reached the Islands during the last two centuries. There is also a small minority of South Americans, mainly Chilean origin, and in more recent times many people from Saint Helena have also come to work and live in the Islands.

The main religion is Christianity. The main denominations are Church of England, Roman Catholic, United Free Church, and Lutheran. Smaller numbers are Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-day Adventists and Greek Orthodox; with the latter being due to Greek fishermen passing through. There is also a Bahá'í presence.

Since the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983 the islanders have been full British citizens. Under Argentine Law they are eligible for Argentine citizenship, but due to the Falkland Islands rejection of the Argentine claim to sovereignty this is dismissed by most Islanders.