Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia. It is located in south central Zambia at 15°25′S 28°17′E, on a plateau at 1280 m (4200 ft) in altitude. It has a population of 1,084,703 (2000 census).
Lusaka was founded in 1905 by European settlers, at the site of a village named after the village headman Lusaaka. Due to its central location in the country, in 1935 it replaced Livingstone as the capital of the British colony Northern Rhodesia. After the federation of Northern and Southern Rhodesia in 1953, it was a centre of the civil disobedience movement that led to the creation of the independent state of Zambia. In 1964 it became the capital of the newly independent Zambia.
The city centre lies around Cairo Road, around which lie the New City Market and Kamwala Market, a major shopping area, and the Zintu Community Museum. Further east lies the government area, around the Cathedral Hill and Ridgeway areas. Other suburbs include Elizabetha Villa, Fairview, Kabulonga, Kabwata (a working class area, home to the Kabwata Cultural Centre), Madras, Manda Hill (another major shopping area), Northmead (known for its nightlife), Olympia Park, Rhodes Park, Roma, Thorn Park and Woodlands.
Attractions include Lusaka National Museum, the Political Museum, the Zintu Community Museum, the Freedom Statue, the Zambian National Assembly, the Agricultural Society Showgrounds (known for their annual show), the Moore Pottery Factory, the Lusaka Playhouse theatre, a cinema, the Cathedral of the Holy Cross, a centotaph, a golf club, the Lusaka Central Sports Club, and the zoo and botanical gardens of the Munda Wanga Environmental Park. The city is also home to the University of Zambia.
The city is home to Lusaka International Airport and lies on the railway line from Livingstone to Kitwe.