The country’s official name: The Republic of the Sudan. It is the largest country in Africa with an area of 2 505 813 km2, Population: 34,475,690 (July 1999 estimate.). located in north-east Africa, lies almost entirely within the tropics between latitude 21° 55´ and 3° 53´ N and longitudes 21° 54´ and 38° 31´ E. Bounded on the north by Egypt; on the east by the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia; on the south by Kenya, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire); and on the west by the Central African Republic, Chad, and Libya.

29% of the land is desert, 19% as semi-desert, 27% as low rainfall (poor savanna), 14% as high rainfall (rich savanna), 10% as a flood region (affected by floods and swamps) and less than 1% as True Mountain and vegetation regions. Three cities call: Omdurman, Khartoum north and Khartoum form Sudan’s Capital: Khartoum. Khartoum is located at the junction of Blue Nile and White Nile River.

Climate and weather
The country’s climate and weather is divided into three natural regions. Northern part of the country is primarily Desert region; Central part of the country is mostly a grass-covered plain region known as (Savannah). Southern part of country is a vast swamp and rainy with thick rich natural forest regions. The entire drainage of the country come from south and east to north through main Rivers known as Blue Nile River, Bhar el Jebel, Sobat River, and Bahr el Ghazal that form the White Nile River. White Nile River meets with Blue Nile River in Khartoum and form the main Nile River that flows through Egypt to Mediterranean Sea.

 Khartoum, the capital of Sudan

Sudan has a range of tropical climates with many seasonal fluctuations. In the northern deserts, minimum winter temperatures range as low as 5° C mostly at night, maximum temperatures often exceed 44° C in summer around the vicinity of Khartoum and other northern cities and towns. Temperatures in eastern and southern parts of the country are very humid with high rainfalls almost throughout year round.

Mount Kenyeti is the highest point in Sudan follow by Jebel Marrah (Marah Mountain) in the west