TECHNOLOGY - CHRONOLOGY


2,000,000 BC - The stone tools - ax, knife and spear-headed rustic - invented by two of the earliest ancestors of the human genus, Homo habilis and Homo erectus, are considered the oldest inventions.

How did the technology - It is possible that some man's ancestors, the australopithecines, which lived about 4 million years, have used crude tools even more than those of habilis and erectus. Just see that chimpanzees do not know chips of stone to make turn them into a knife or ax. But seek the forest floor stones that fit well in hand and can be used as a hammer to break the coconut. As the australopithecines were very similar to chimpanzees, may have made use of tools "natural" as theirs. Thus, these distant ancestors would have prepared the ground for the emergence of the true technology, two million years later.

500,000 BC - The first species to make use of fire is the Homo erectus, an ancestor of mankind relatively large brain. He measured 75% of the volume of gray matter of Homo sapiens, a species which belong to human beings today.

40,000 BC - Homo sapiens chipped stone tools creates more accurate than the existing so far. Among the "new technologies", there are scrapers made of leather (in the form of chipped stone blade) and small arrowheads and polished.

20,000 BC - Around this time instruments are already being made of wood, bone and shell. It is also the date of the earliest evidence on the use of bow and arrow. The oil lamps, the lamps precursor, are of this period.

12,000 BC - probable source of livestock in Africa and Europe. All indications are that the first domesticated dogs and goats.

7000 BC - Date safer for the invention of ceramic utensils. They may be older than this, but this time, is known to have been well disseminated and in use in various parts of the world. Nobody knows how is the discovery that burning certain types of clay makes them waterproof. It is possible that prehistoric people have learned to make baskets first and then noted that the clay-lined basket has the advantage of retaining water.

6000 BC - They become common fabrics made from flax, a plant found in various regions. Twisted branches of the vegetable fibers seen tough and pliable, good for weaving. Light, fresh, washable fabrics revolutionize the garment, so far made of leather.

5000 BC - Cities of the region that are in what is now Iraq (perhaps also in Egypt) create irrigation systems for major cereal crops. In the following centuries and millennia, the idea takes and spreads throughout the world, coming to China.

4000 BC - The men spread the use of bronze. It's the end of the call the Stone Age. Humanity had begun by stone tools and passed to objects made of shell, wood and bone. Then come two minerals: copper and bronze. Since 6000 BC, rocks are heated to melt the copper contained therein. About 5000 BC is discovered bronze, a mixture of copper and tin.

3500 BC - Wheeled Carts, horse-drawn, are built by nomadic peoples in Asia, possibly in the region that now extends from Ukraine to Mongolia. The wheels are a little older. By this time, the Egyptians use them in flour mills. But do not realize that it could revolutionize the means of transport.

2500 BC - Egyptians have known melting sand with water to turn it into glass. From this period date back to the old parts made with this material.

1700 BC - The writing marks the end of prehistory and early history. The emergence of the alphabet, which is the hallmark of this transition, it appears very clearly in the historical record. The first may be the alphabet of the Sumerians, inhabitants of what is now the Middle East.

1500 BC - The former are iron. There is possibility that the primary source of this metal are meteorites fallen from heaven. The fact is that the iron in meteorites is especially hard, beating the bronze. Only two or three centuries later to find out how to extract iron ore of good quality land. Melt ores burning charcoal, thus the carbon in the char as powerful an alloy with iron. It is actually a type of steel.

700 - The Persians invented the windmills. Until then the most efficient means of producing mechanical power were the waterwheels, which could only be installed where there were rivers. Since the mills had the advantage of working almost anywhere. The first European windmill is built in France in 1180. Soon, almost all countries of the continent are to employ this new and, for the time, powerful source of strength.

900 - Appear the traces in various parts of Europe. With these pieces of leather firmly strapped to their bodies, the horses can finally pull big weights, such as plows and carts.

1291 - Italians apply a layer of molten metal on a glass surface, creating the first mirror history.

1454 - The first printer of the story is put together by German inventor Johann Gutenberg. The printed book is a bible debut illustrated. Before Gutenberg, books were copied by hand, and very few people had access to reading.

1568 - The world maps created by the Belgian Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594) founded the modern geography. Even today, many of them are designed according to the method of Belgium, called Mercator Projection. In this type of map is easier to plan routes for navigation. But, as the earth is round, the course of vessels, to be plotted on maps common, appears as a curve. Mercator then changes the way the maps so that if a ship does not change direction, your route appears as a straight line.

1590 - The Dutch microscope is invented by Zacharias Janssen (1580-1638?). Eyewear manufacturer, he had the brilliant idea of ​​combining two lenses to bend the increase given by one of them alone.

1592 - Using only one test tube and a bowl of water, the Italian scholar Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) mounts the first thermometer. He puts the tube with the mouth down, semi-submerged in water. Thus, when the air inside the tube cools, the volume decreases and increases a little water in the glass cylinder. When the air heats the volume increases and the water is pushed out. The water level therefore measures the air temperature.

1643 - The Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) creates the barometer. With this apparatus, evaluates the atmospheric pressure, ie the weight of air over the surface of the earth. Five years later, the Frenchman Blaise Pascal uses the barometer to show that high in the mountains the air pressure is lower.

1707 - The clock pulse appears as an instrument to count heartbeats. It's built by the English physicist John Floyer (1649-1734) and works only for one minute at a time. How does this just for doctors, Floyer does not bother to increase the size of the spring that makes the clock work, staying that way in subsequent years.

1712 - Appears the steam engine. Its creator is the English engineer Thomas Newcomen (1663-1728). Closed heating water in a boiler, it produces steam that can push a piston. This movement drives the apparatus to which the machine is turned on, the bombs, water tower, used in coal mines at that time. In 1764, the Scottish engineer James Watt (1736-1819) perfected the steam engine and is also considered one of its creators.

The technology revolution - From the late Middle Ages, big factories, especially tissue begins to operate in Europe. Are played by windmills or waterwheels, which do not produce much power. The steam engines and more powerful, allow the emergence of really big factories that employ hundreds, sometimes thousands, of workers. So the steam is considered fundamental to what we now call the Industrial Revolution.

1800 - Experimenting with metal, the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) develops the electric battery. It uses two containers of salt water. In one copper and the other places, zinc. Ligand by the metal wire, electricity flows between them. Experience shows that the metals are deposits of electrical energy that can be released at any time.

1839 - French artist Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1789-1851) takes the first photograph. It known that certain salts darken when exposed to light. And, if this is reflected by a face, for example, dimming reproduced image. The French spread the salts on a paper and places it in a closed box, with a small hole that can open and close quickly. Then, a chemical method - now called revelation - stops the browning of salts, fixing the image.

1860 - The Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) mounts the first combustion engine. It's the same idea that is still running the cars now is to introduce air and flammable gas in a hollow cylinder in which a spark causes the mixture that explodes and pushes a piston. This movement, by means of gears, enables the wheel to rotate. The combustion engine has been enhanced by German Nicolas Otto in 1876, and Rudolf Diesel in 1897.

1876 ​​- The phone enables spoken communication over great distances. Built by the American Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), the device transforms your voice into electrical signals and, on the other side of the line, converts the signals into sounds again. The same principle, since 1844, was already working the telegraph.

1879 - After years of failed attempts to light a bulb capable of producing light for some time before burning. For 40 hours she illuminates the lab of its builder, the American Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931).

1898 - The American engineer Simon Lake (1866-1945) builds a submarine able to submerge in the high seas. Well before that, around 1620, the Dutchman Cornelis Drebbel Jacobszoon (1572-1633) had managed to navigate a submarine in the river, the Thames in the UK.

1901 - The transmission, which inaugurates the era of radio is made on December 12 by the Italian Guglielmo Marconi. He produces radio waves in a balloon over the UK, and they are captured on the coast of the United States (U.S.). At the same time, the Russian Aleksander Stepanovich Popov (1859-1905) gets the same feat. The two are considered the creators of the radio.

1903 - The American brothers Orville (1871-1948) and Wilbur Wright (1867-1912) fly the first airplane. They travel 208 m in the air. In 1906, Brazilian Alberto Santos Dumont (1873 to 1932) flies 220 m in Paris on 14-Bis. Your done, by being public, becomes better known than that of Wright.

1904 - There are electronic valves to control the passage of electric current in the wires. Designed by British engineer John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945), once these pieces enable the operation of radios.

1926 - Hutchinson Robert Goddard (1882-1945) launches a rocket fuel (gas and oxygen gas). It measures 1.30 m and up to 70 m above the ground.

The right materials - Over 500 years before the American Goddard, the Chinese already know to launch small cylinders to heaven. They use the powder, which, being a powder, is solid and is easier to handle. However, it does not generate a very high strength. Therefore, the small Chinese rockets are not toys. Nobody thinks about flying into them, as happens today with the liquid rocket. Are the appropriate resources and materials that enable ideas.

1941 - The jet takes off. What makes possible this new means of transport is similar to a rocket engine, developed by British engineer Frank Whittle (1907 -).

1943 - Motorola introduces the walkie-talkie, the first portable device capable of transmitting and receiving radio broadcasts. Very useful to U.S. troops in World War II, is relatively large, almost the size of a shoebox, and makes no immediate commercial success. Smaller models in the following decades, expand sales of the device, making it the precursor not only of walkie-talkies but current cell phone.

1945 - On July 16, the city of Alamogordo, New Mexico, is detonated the first nuclear fission bomb made from plutonium (atomic bomb). Their strength reaches 20 thousand tons of TNT. Before the explosion, it was expected that the maximum power would be 5000 t.

1946 - The American electrical engineer Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) built a computer using radio valves. The mechanical equipment is assembled by John William Mauchly (1907-1980) and John Presper Eckart, Jr. (1919 -).

1947 - The TV installs in homes. She has not exactly an inventor, for since the '20s is used as a laboratory research equipment.

1948 - The transistors take the place of valves as essential components of electrical and electronic circuits. Tiny and simpler than the valves of glass, they are made of silicon, the same crystal found in sand. Leaving the factory-mounted round plates of silicon, called chips.

1956 - In the United States, hospitals and private physicians begin to use a small telephone receiver, pager baptized soon after. With twice the size of the current, it is made of glass valves, only becoming fully transistorized in 1965, three years after the walkie-talkies. Nevertheless, the pager only fall below 15 cm in 1983. Only after this time telephone networks spread the use of the device among the population.

1961 - Launch of the first spacecraft capable of carrying a human being out of the atmosphere and bring it back to Earth. It's Vostok I, Russian. It flies in April 21 piloted by cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin Alekseyevich (1934-1968). In 1963, Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova Russian becomes the first woman to travel into space.

1965 - The Early Bird American inaugurates the era of satellite communications. He has a call center with capacity for 240 lines, and a relay antenna to TV.

1972 - The laser discs hit stores. In them, the sounds are encoded in the form of microscopic holes, which a laser beam can "read" and translate into sound again. As in the case of television, laser discs do not have a single inventor. They are gradually developed to become an economically viable product.

1973 - The Americans put a space orbital station called Skylab. With 39 m in length, it is a step beyond the small unmanned spacecraft that flew by that time. With Skylab, the astronauts can stay in space for several months.

1977 - The patent office of the United States (USA) grants license for the marketing of a wireless phone today called the phone, which transmits and receives messages via radio waves. The innovation is an improvement over the old walkie-talkies, with a relatively large radius of action because of the expansion of the communications network, especially via satellite. The phone only becomes truly operational since 1983 and its use grows only after 1990.

1981 - The space shuttle makes its maiden voyage. It is the first rocket capable of flying to space and back to land. The rockets used so far only come up to an Earth orbit, launched its load - which can be a satellite or a manned spacecraft - and are abandoned. The crew later returned to the soil in a small module with a parachute.

1995 - Dave Wineland and Chris Monroe build the first transistor the size of an atom, or one million times less than 1 mm. Thus, transistors no longer obey the laws of traditional electronics, but the rules of quantum mechanics, and its ability to process data is vastly increased. Problems that in a current supercomputer would take years to be resolved in a future computer "quantum" would take only a few seconds.

Nanotechnology - The technique allowed the Monroe and Wineland make your transistor is nanotechnology: it is possible to manipulate objects of the same order of magnitude of a few atoms. Should be used to make transistors and other things like engines, radios and equipment for surgery, such as a robot that could operate inside the human body without cutting anything. In 1986, IBM demonstrated the potential of nanotechnology to carve his name on a metal plate which had only a few thousand atoms.

1998 - Coming to Brazil, the successors of the CD-ROM, DVD. In the simplest version, the new album holds seven times more than the old. They are 4.7 gigabytes, equivalent to nine hours of music or 133 minutes of film. The capacity increase was obtained by U.S. companies in 1995, date of creation of the DVD. To meet the large companies that sell the product, the world was divided into six major regions: 1, United States, 2, Europe, 3, Southeast Asia, 4, Central and South America, 5, Russian Federation and Eastern Europe, 6 , China. The films produced for each of them can not be seen in another because of an existing password on the DVD. In practice, this lock has been broken.

1999 - Explode on the Internet using the MP3, an audio playback program that can compete in quality with the CD-ROMs. The user downloads on sites that may or may not charge for this. The MP3 can also be used by those who make music, since there is no difficulty in producing a virtual disk on your computer. The secret of this software is its ability to data compression, the proportion of 11 to one, which facilitates manipulation of files recorded with sounds. Even so, the program took to succeed. Created in 1987 by the German company Fraunhofer, he only began to be used in a limited way in information technology since 1992. Five years later appeared the first tunes on the Internet, especially thanks to the initiative of the American student Justin Fraenkel.

2000 - Swedish scientists have of Linkoping University, build a minirobô so small that you can manipulate living cells, after passage of the prototype stage. The device resembles a pair of pliers - consists of two rods connected to each other, able to close to grab an object. To the world of nanotechnology, the piece is still a giant, measuring 0.67 mm in length and 0.17 to 0.24 mm in height. But beyond the Swedish construction and demonstrate for the first time microobjetos continue to operate outside the laboratory under ideal conditions. They tested it in liquids such as blood and urine, showing that such devices in the future, can be extraordinarily useful to medicine.

2001 - The most perfect clock ever built - which slows down just a second every 20 million years - is successfully tested by a team from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Colorado, United States. The new device represents a new technological generation of atomic clocks, from which it will be possible in the coming years, making timers up to a thousand times more accurate - that delay only one second every 20 billion years. This will depend on the ability of scientists to produce laser pulses becoming shorter and faster. In atomic clocks, the laser beams play the role of mechanical pendulums of old clocks, and the pulses are like the oscillations of pendulums. The faster the pendulum, the more accurate is the time. The current generation of atomic clocks work with microwave laser, a form of electromagnetic radiation pulsing relatively slowly, about nine billion times per second. In the new generation, it uses the standard, which is a type of electromagnetic radiation much faster, pulsing 400 trillion times per second. Scientists hope to further increase the accuracy by improving the systems of counting pulses.

2002 - Many technological innovations this year were related to the need to create cleaner engines. The most original idea came Uiversidade in Iceland, where the engineer developed the thermator Thorstein Sigfusson. This is an electricity generator that works only with hot and cold water. Crystals of silicon metal, immersed in the liquid, turn the temperature difference into electric current. Zero pollution.

2003 - Here comes a CD made from corn: the MildDisc developed by Sanyo, will be done with a plastic obtained from corn. The common plastics are derived from petroleum and take time to undo, in nature. The corn plastic can be desacartado without risk because the bacteria eat the soil quickly. Just water, in fact, for tearing it apart. I mean that is biodegradable. The new CD will be able to store computer data, music and video. Give an ear of corn to produce 10 CDs Each disc contains about 85 grains of corn.